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Fixed and Portable Services
Fixed and Portable Services

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in Broadcast Microwave Bands Broadcast Microwave Presented By Dan Ryson Cavell Mertz amp Associates Inc With Assistance and Photos From Joe Snelson Craig Strom amp Ray Benedict ID: 168976 Download Presentation

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Slide1

Fixed and Portable Services

in Broadcast Microwave BandsSlide2

Broadcast Microwave

Presented By…

Dan Ryson, Cavell Mertz & Associates, Inc.

With Assistance and Photos From…

Joe

Snelson

,

Craig Strom, & Ray BenedictSBE National Frequency Coordination Committee Additional Photos Provided By…Cindy Cavell, Jeremy Lewis, Gary Nadler, & Mike RhodesSlide3

Broadcast Microwave

Introduction

What is Broadcast Microwave?

How broadcasters use BAS bands

Fixed point-to-point

News

coverage

Sports coverageTrends in equipment used by broadcastersConsiderations in sharing 7 & 13 GHz

SBE Frequency CoordinatorsSlide4

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Broadcast Microwave is:

A bit unusual

Associated with broadcast licenses

Renewed with broadcast license

Expiration concurrent with broadcast licenseOriginally administered by Media BureauSlide5

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Types of Broadcast Microwave StationsSlide6

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Types of Broadcast Microwave Stations

Aural Broadcast

Auxiliary Stations

Issued to AM, FM, LPFM, some FM translator, FM booster, and TV stations.

Aural studio

transmitter link stations

Aural broadcast intercity relay

stations

Aural broadcast microwave booster

stationsSlide7

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Types of Broadcast Microwave Stations

Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations (§74.601)

Issued to a TV, Class A TV, LPTV, or TV translator stations and TV network entities.

Television pickup stations

TV studio transmitter

link stationsTV relay stations

TV microwave booster stations

TV translator relay stationsSlide8

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Aural

Broadcast STL Stations

Radio Service code “AS”

Fixed stations

for the transmission of aural program material between the studio and the transmitter of a broadcasting station.

ULS universe: 10,800 or 42.9% (as of May 2012)

There are far more Aural STLs than any other BAS Radio Service. Slide9

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Aural

Broadcast STL Stations (cont’d.)

Typically

licensed by radio stations

High Reliability

VitalPreviously coordinated by local (often SBE) frequency coordination committees.Now coordinated using Part 101 and PCN proceduresSlide10

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Aural

Broadcast Intercity Relay Stations

Radio Service code “AI”

Fixed stations

for the transmission of aural program material

to other radio stations, FM booster stations and FM translator stations,

or other

purposes

per §74.531.

ULS universe: 6,419 or 25.5%

(as of May 2012)Slide11

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Aural

Intercity Relay Stations (cont’d)

Use same frequencies as Aural STLs

Typically licensed by radio stations

High reliability

often requiredSlide12

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Aural

Broadcast Microwave Booster Stations

Radio Service code “AB”

A

fixed station in the broadcast auxiliary service that receives and amplifies signals of an aural broadcast STL or intercity relay station and retransmits them on the same frequency

.ULS universe: 7 or 0.03% (as of May 2012)

Same frequencies as Aural STL/ICRsSlide13

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

TV

Studio Transmitter Link Stations

Radio Service code “TS”

Fixed

station

that transmits TV program material and related communications from the studio to the transmitter of a TV, Class

A or LPTV station or other purposes

per §

74.631

.

ULS universe

:

3,112 or 12.4%

(as of May 2012)

There are more TV STLs than other TV services Slide14

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Television

Pickup Stations

Radio Service code “TP”

Land

mobile

stations for transmission of TV program material and related communications from scenes of events to TV or LPTV stations or other purposes per

§74.631

.

ULS universe

:

2,616 or 10.4%

(as of May 2012)

Because they’re unusual, we’ll focus on TV Pickup Stations in today’s presentation.Slide15

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

TV

Relay Stations

Radio Service code “TI”

Commonly known as “ICR” (InterCity Relay)

A fixed station

for transmission of TV program material and related communications for use by TV, Class A or LPTV stations

or other purposes as

per §

74.631

.

ULS universe

:

6,419 or 25.5%

(as of May 2012)Slide16

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

TV

Microwave Booster Stations

Radio Service code “TM”

A fixed station in the TV broadcast auxiliary service that receives and amplifies signals of a TV pickup, TV STL, TV relay, or TV translator relay station and retransmits them on the same frequency

.

ULS universe: 9 or 0.04% (as of May 2012)Slide17

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

TV Translator

Relay Stations

Radio Service code “TT”

A fixed station used for relaying programs and signals of TV broadcast or Class A TV stations to Class A TV, LPTV, TV translator, and to other communications facilities that the Commission may authorize or for other purposes as permitted by §

74.631.

ULS universe: 574 or 2.3%

(as of May 2012)Slide18

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Common Terms

BAS – Broadcast Auxiliary

Service

ENG – Electronic News Gathering

ENG Truck – A vehicle (typically a van) equipped with a

mast, transmitter & antenna

Portable – Temporary fixed

links, sometimes used on building rooftops or mountains and deployed from the trunk of a car.Slide19

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Common Terms

Mobile – Transmissions from a vehicle in motion or aircraft

Backhaul link – A fixed link used to transmit program material to the studioSlide20

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Broadcast Auxiliary Microwave Bands

Aural

944–952

MHz

18 GHz BAS band – 18.76 to 18.82 GHz and 19.10 to 19.16 (legacy

)*

* Shared with other servicesSlide21

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Broadcast Auxiliary Microwave Bands

ENG, STL, ICR, Television Translator Relay

2 GHz BAS band – 2,025 to 2,110 MHz

2.5 GHz BAS band – 2,450 to

2,483.5 MHz*

7 GHz BAS band – 6875 to 7125 MHz*13 GHz BAS band – 12.70 to 13.25 GHz*18

GHz BAS band – 17.70 to 18.58 GHz and 19.26 to 19.70*

* Shared with other servicesSlide22

What is Broadcast Microwave

?

Broadcast Auxiliary Microwave Bands

Mobile Only

6.5 GHz BAS band – 6,425 to 6,525 MHz

*

* Shared with other

services Slide23

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Studio

Transmitter Link (STL) – Transmits program material from the studio to the main transmitterSlide24

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Intercity Relay (ICR) – Feed program material back to the studio such as:

TV

Network programs from

off-site satellite receivers

Remote

news

bureausENG receive sitesStudio programming to other TV stationsSlide25

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television

Pick-Up

Sports:

Camera back operation inside a stadiumSlide26

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television

Pick-Up

Sports (cont’d):

Television remotes such as parades and sporting eventsSlide27

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television

Pick-Up

Sports (cont’d):

Multiple non-directional receive antennas were located throughout the NASCAR track.Slide28

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television

Pick-Up

Sports (cont’d):

Golf coverage is particularly challenging

This temporary transmitter site is for a multiple golf course event.Slide29

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television

Pick-Up

Sports (cont’d):

This is the temporary receive site for the same multi-course broadcast.Slide30

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television

Pick-Up

Sports (cont’d):

Some sports coverage requires Herculean effort.

This is 1 of 6 7GHz microwave relays from Mount Everest to Kathmandu, Nepal.Slide31

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television

Pick-Up

News:

Temporary, transmit equipment for live news

coverage

of the 2009 inauguration.Slide32

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television

Pick-Up

News (cont’d):

Rooftop Receive Equipment for live

news

coverage of the 2009 inauguration.Slide33

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television Pick-Up

News (cont’d):

This is the WLS-TV, Chicago newsroom.

Journalists pick the news stories that deserve coverage. Slide34

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television Pick-Up

News (cont’d):

The WLS-TV Assignment Desk monitors and dispatches news crewsSlide35

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television Pick-Up

News (cont’d):

Based on the story and the location, the Assignment Desk may deploy an ENG truck.Slide36

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television Pick-Up

News (cont’d):

The ENG truck is equipped with AC and generator controls, UHF communications, a digital editor, and ENG/SNG modulators and power amplifiers.Slide37

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television Pick-Up

News (cont’d):

They may also deploy the WLS-TV helicopter, known as Chopper 7HD.Slide38

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television Pick-Up

News (cont’d):

ENG signals are received by a steerable antenna atop Willis Tower, the tallest building in the USA.Slide39

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television Pick-Up

News (cont’d):

From such a tall rooftop, one might think ENG coverage with low antennas wouldn’t be a challenge. Still, “bounce” shots are often necessary.Slide40

How Broadcasters Use BAS Bands

Television Pick-Up

News (cont’d):

At the studio, Transmission is responsible for remote control of the Central Receive antennas. Slide41

BAS Microwave Equipment Trends

Lower Antenna Gain and Height.

Will-Burt “Night Scan” mast doesn’t require any interior vehicle space. Only extends ~15 ft. Slide42

BAS Microwave Equipment Trends

Combination of ENG and Satellite Technology.

In some cases, ENG is used for “first mile” and satellite is used to backhaul video to a distant city.Slide43

BAS Microwave Equipment Trends

Wireless Camera-back Transmitter

Often used for short “hop” to the ENG truck or in lieu of long cable runs in buildings.Slide44

BAS Microwave Equipment Trends

3G, 4G,

WiFi

, Microwave Combo

Claimed to go where ENG and satellite signals are impractical.

Shared with public, can be problematic.Slide45

Sharing

7 & 13 GHz – Possible Issues

Fixed and Mobile in the Same Band:

News crews are often in a rush to get to a news event and quickly establish video.

STLs must have high reliability – or broadcast stations go off the air.

Having these diametrically opposed needs within the same band can be problematic, even among fellow broadcasters.

New FCC Rules preclude FS in markets with 7 & 13 GHz ENG. It’s a good move. Slide46

SBE Frequency Coordination

Most coordinators are unpaid volunteers

Many are familiar

with the nuances of

broadcasting

and

news – in their region.

They typically do not assign frequenciesPrimarily a facilitator to provide contact and predominant use information

May not know

precise, day-to-day

usage by

every broadcaster in his region.

There are a

few incorporated coordination committeesSlide47

Fixed and Portable Services

in Broadcast Microwave Bands

Questions

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