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# Scales and Key Signatures - PowerPoint Presentation

#### Scales and Key Signatures - Description

Understanding the principles of Key Signatures and how they function in music Tonality amp Key Signatures When determining what key a piece of music is in you must first refer to the key signature to give you a foundation for the tonal center of the piece ID: 540682 Download Presentation

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Slide1

Scales and Key Signatures

Understanding the principles of Key Signatures and how they function in musicSlide2

Tonality & Key Signatures

When determining what key a piece of music is in you must first refer to the key signature to give you a foundation for the tonal center of the piece.

Once you have assessed the information from the key signature you need to analyze the piece to be sure that the tonality of the piece and the key signature match.

The order of sharps in a key signature will ALWAYS appear in the same order. However, not all sharps will be present at all times. You must look at each key signature on an individual basis and read each key individually.The order of sharps is: F C G D A E B The order of flats in a key signature will ALWAYS appear in the same order. However, not all flats will be present at all times. You must look at each key signature on an individual basis and read each key individually. The order of flats is: B E A D G C F The order of sharps and flats are reciprocals of one another. Just remember which order is sharps and which is flats!Slide3

Determining Keys

Based on the Key Signature

When reading a key signature when there are sharps in the key:

Go to the last sharp and name it (remember it will be named sharp)Go up ½ stepThat is your keyWhen reading a key signature when there are flats in the key:Go to the 2nd to last flat and name it (remember it will be named flat)That is your key (Remember it will have a flat in it’s name)There are two exceptions to these rules:When there is only one flat, you will not be able to go to the 2nd to last flat. When this occurs, the flat you will see will be B flat and you will be reading the key of F.When there are no sharps and no flats you will not be able to follow either of the rules above, and this indicates that you are reading the key of C.Slide4

Determining Tonality

Following key signature rules DOES NOT always mean you have identified the tonality of the piece! You need to look further at the piece.

After determining the key signature, observe opening chords or melodic intervals to help verify or deter your original determination.

You should also look at phrase cadences and the final chord of the piece. But be sure there was not a key change in the middle of the piece, or your answer will not be correct.Sometimes your piece will be in a minor key. Relative minor keys are 3 half steps down from their major key component. They share the same key signature and will usually have a 7th degree leading tone. You will need to analyze the score for verification.Slide5

Scales

There are many types of scales in music. We will be dealing with four main scales. Each scale has a formula for how it should be created.

Major: Do, Re, Mi,

Fa, So, La, Ti, Do - W W H W W W H. This is the most common scale.Natural Minor: Do, Re, Me, Fa, So, Le, Te, Do - W H W W H W W From a major scale, lower the 3rd, 6th and 7

th scale degrees.Harmonic Minor: Do, Re,

Me

,

Fa

, So,

Le

, Ti, Do - W H W

W H W+H H. From a major scale, lower the 3rd and 6th scale degrees only.Melodic Minor: Do, Re, Me, Fa, So, La, Ti, Do Do, Te, Le, So Fa, Me, Re, Do W H W W W W H W W H W W H WFrom a major scale, ascending, lower the 3rd scale degree only. From a major scale, descending, lower the 7th, 6th and 3rd scale degrees.

Slide6

Circle of 5ths

The circle of 5ths shows the relationships among the twelve tones of the chromatic scale, their corresponding key signatures, and the associated major and minor keys. (Wikipedia)

From Top around to the

right, each key is separated by the interval of a 5th. Each time you go up a 5th (or down a 4th if you come down on the left), you add or subtract 1 sharp or 1 flat.All relative minor keys are listed within the Circle of 5ths.The parenthetical notations are showing you enharmonic options. Those key signatures do not exist.