The Big Picture: In the years following World War II, the nation experienced tremendous economic gr

The Big Picture: In the years following World War II, the nation experienced tremendous economic gr - Description

Chapter 26: Postwar America. Main Idea: The presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower was shaped in large part by the Cold War and related conflicts.. Chapter 26 Section 1: . The Eisenhower Years. Flocabulary: . ID: 723539 Download Presentation

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The Big Picture: In the years following World War II, the nation experienced tremendous economic gr

Chapter 26: Postwar America. Main Idea: The presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower was shaped in large part by the Cold War and related conflicts.. Chapter 26 Section 1: . The Eisenhower Years. Flocabulary: .

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Presentation on theme: "The Big Picture: In the years following World War II, the nation experienced tremendous economic gr"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

The Big Picture: In the years following World War II, the nation experienced tremendous economic growth and prosperity, transforming the way middle-class people lived. The Cold War arms race with the Soviet Union, however, cast a dark cloud of anxiety over the Eisenhower years.

Chapter 26: Postwar America

Slide2

Main Idea: The presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower was shaped in large part by the Cold War and related conflicts.

Chapter 26 Section 1:

The Eisenhower Years

Flocabulary:

Cold War

Slide3

The Election of 1952

Following Roosevelt’s 4 terms of president, Congress passed the

22

nd Amendment

that limited the number of years a president could serve to 10.

Ike Eisenhower

ran on the Republican ticket for the presidency in 1952, became known as “likeable Ike.”World War II Hero, Strong stance against the Democrats handling of the Korean peace talks.

Slide4

The Cold War Continues

Eisenhower’s Secretary of State

John Foster Dulles

wanted not only to contain Communism but to push it back.Favored building more

nuclear weapons

,

only the threat of nuclear war would threaten the Soviet’s.Believed in brinkmanship or the diplomatic art of going to the brink of war without actually going to war.Dulles advocated for massive retaliation or the pledge that the United States would respond with overwhelming force against the Soviet Union. Meant to scare the Soviet’s into surrender.

CIA

or Central Intelligence Agency was created to collect information and spy on foreign governments.

Collected intelligence but also were active in other nations governments to advance American interests.

Slide5

The Warsaw PactIn 1953 Soviet leader Joseph Stalin died,

Nikita Khrushchev

emerged as the new leader of the Soviet Union.

The Soviet Union established a new organization called the Warsaw Pact

with communist Eastern European countries that created an alliance amongst these nations.

Similar to NATO, except the Soviet Union was in charge.

Soviet’s would crush many oppositions that arose in Eastern Europe.

Slide6

US and Soviet RelationsThe Americans and the Soviet’s met for the first Cold War

summit

in 1955 in Geneva, Switzerland.

Eisenhower proposed an “open skies” policy in which each power would be allowed to fly over the other, Soviet’s rejected it.

America flew over the Soviet Union anyway to try and gain intelligence, Soviet’s shot down the American pilot and held him captive until he was traded for a Soviet spy.

Slide7

Cold War “Hot Spots” – Vietnam

In 1954 France lost the bloody battle to keep control of their colony in Vietnam, many rebels in Vietnam had turned

communist

.Agreed to divide Vietnam into two parts – Northern and Southern, this division was meant to be temporary until elections could happen in which the people would be able to choose what kind of government they wanted.

US would did not even want to give the Communist’s the chance to come to power – US established the

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization or SEATO

with Great Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand.Helped to establish the anti-communist government in South Vietnam.

Slide8

Cold War “Hot Spots” – Middle East

There were many tensions in the Middle East between Jews and Arabs, only increased after Israel established independence in 1948.

Egypt and other Arab nations were upset by the creation of Israel.

In response Egypt took over the British

Suez canal

that helped Britain and France extract petroleum from the Middle East.

Soviet’s intervened on the side of Egypt, Great Britain and France invaded the Suez canal attempting to gain control – Eisenhower insisted that they withdraw and allow the canal to remain under Egyptian control.In response to the crisis Eisenhower responded with the Eisenhower Doctrine that declared the US right to help, upon request, any nation in the Middle East attempted to resist Communist aggression.

Slide9

Main Idea: The growing power of, and military reliance on, nuclear weapons helped create significant anxiety in the American public in the 1920s.

Chapter 26 Section 2:

Atomic Anxiety

Daisy Commercial 1964

Slide10

The Hydrogen BombThe atomic bombs that the United States had dropped at the end of World War II had changed the world.

Atomic bombs would be the

future

of military weaponry and the US was building its stockpile and creating new and improved weapons.

The

hydrogen bomb

was one of these weapons, it would be powered by fusing together hydrogen atoms, would be more powerful than the standard atomic bomb.Some argued against even building it since it was so destructive. The first H-Bomb was so heavy it could not even be used against enemies.The development of missiles allowed for long range firing rather than reliance on airplanes.

Slide11

The Arms RaceThe United States and the Soviets had roughly the

same

technology.

To ensure neither country had the edge the two countries began building stockpiles.Eisenhower decreased spending on

soldiers and tanks

and increased spending on

nuclear weapons as a way to protect America from it’s enemies.New technology permitted the US to become a more formidable power.Developed Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMS)USS Nautilus used nuclear energy to create steam to power the engine, enabled the submarine to go months without refueling.

Slide12

Soviet Advances in TechnologyThe Soviet Union was lacking in the number of weapons it possessed in relation to the United States.

Soviet Union launched the first ever satellite named

Sputnik

, a month later they launched Sputnik II that carried the first ever live animal into space.

Americans feared that if the Soviet’s had surpassed the United States in relation to space technology they would surpass them in weapons technology as well.

Congress established

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and launched a satellite of its own to keep up with Soviet technology.

Slide13

Americans React to the Threat of Nuclear War

Truman administration created the

Civil Defense Administration

to help educate and prepare the public for nuclear emergencies.Created videos for school children, air raid sirens were installed, housewives prepared their homes for emergency.

While the preparations ensured that America would be prepared for the threat of nuclear attack it also increased fears of nuclear attack.

In his farewell address Eisenhower warned the nation of the

military industrial complex, or becoming an industrial power based upon weapons development and build up.

“Duck and Cover

Slide14

Main Idea: Television was a major influence on American culture in the 1950s, mirroring larger changes in technology and culture.

Chapter 26

Section

3:

The Television

A

ge

Slide15

Television Changes American Life

Televisions biggest immediate impact was on politics, politicians were now able to connect with their viewers visually as well as audibly.

They were able to experience the different political styles presented at political debates.

Advertisers

also took advantage of the opportunity of television, allowed them to more persuasively reach viewers than radio.

Programs made TV the most attractive to viewers.

Favorites included I Love Lucy and The Honeymooners.

Slide16

Other Technological Advances of the 1950s

Researchers began to develop the first computers in the 1940s, during this time the computer was as big as a large room.

The first computers were made out of a series of vacuum tubes that broke often,

transistors

were developed as an alternative to the tube and would allow the computers to be smaller and more efficient.

Ten years later scientists developed the first computer chip called a

integrated circuit that allowed for the computer to be even more efficient. Polio was a common contagious disease during the early 1900s, Jonas Salk developed a new vaccine in order to help prevent outbreaks.

Slide17

Cultural Change in the 1950sIn the 1950s America had clearly emerged as the world’s leading

industrial leader

producing 1/3 of the world’s goods and services.After WWII there was also a baby boom and population in the United States soared causing an increase in

housing development

.

Automobile industry also boomed and they created new makes and models in order to appeal to consumer demand.

Slide18

New Communities and Highways

One of the most famous communities built in the 1950s was

Levittown

in New York.They were successful because the houses were made for a single family and were affordable, often with help of the GI Bill.

Discrimination within the housing communities that developed were common.

Movement toward warmer parts

of the United States became more common, called the Sunbelt.California is a major sunbelt location.The United States started on the

Interstate

Highway System

in the

1950s

that would create standard

highways

across the nation to increase

travel

and

transport

“Little Boxes”