Carbon Capture:  Beyond 2020 PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

Carbon Capture:  Beyond 2020 PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

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Paul Alivisatos. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Michelle Buchanan. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting. August 5, 2010. Stemming CO. 2 . Emissions is a Daunting Challenge . ID: 698185

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Presentations text content in Carbon Capture:  Beyond 2020

Slide1

Carbon Capture:  Beyond 2020

Paul Alivisatos

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Michelle Buchanan

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting

August 5, 2010

Slide2

Stemming CO

2

Emissions is a Daunting Challenge

Global energy use accounts for over 85% of the 37

Gt of CO2 released to the atmosphere annually

U.S. Energy Information Administration / International Energy Outlook 2010; OECD = Organization Economic Cooperation and Development member countries

Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020

Slide3

Projected global electricity generation shows continued reliance on carbon-based fuels

U.S. Energy Information Administration / International Energy Outlook 2010

Slide4

Carbon Capture - a necessary part of the solution

Source: IPCC

Nuclear

Renewables

Efficiency

Coal Substitution

CCS

Cost of Carbon Capture today:

~$80

/ton of CO

2

;

~8c

/

kWh

Parasitic

energy of 25-30%

Slide5

Today’s technologies I – multiple separation approaches

Slide6

Today’s technology II – post combustion amine separations

Slide7

Typical 550 MW coal-fired electrical plant2 million ft

3

of flue gas

per minuteContains CO2, H2O, N2

, O2, NOx, SOx, and ashToday’s technologies III – scope of the problem

Slide8

Co- Chairs

:

Paul

Alivisatos (LBNL)

Michelle Buchanan

(ORNL)

Goal

- To identify the global challenges and fundamental science needed to provide transformative carbon capture technologies in the time frame beyond 2020.

Breakout Session Panel and Leaders

:

Liquids‐Based Absorption

Bill Schneider, Notre Dame University

Peter Cummings, Vanderbilt University

Membranes

Benny Freeman, U. Texas-Austin

Samuel

Stupp

, Northwestern University

Solid Sorbents

Omar Yaghi, U. California-Los Angeles Chris Murray, U. Pennsylvania,

Crosscutting Theory, Modeling, & SimulationBerend Smit, U. California-Berkeley Paulette Clancy, Cornell UniversityCrosscutting Analysis and CharacterizationMurray Gibson, Argonne National LabMartin Zanni, U. Wisconsin-MadisonSponsored Jointly by BES (Lead) and FECarbon Capture: Beyond 2020 March 4‐5, 2010

Slide9

Contents:Introduction

Carbon Capture Technologies

Post Combustion CO

2 CapturePre-Combustion CO

2 CaptureOxy-Combustion Cyrogenic Separations

Status of CO2 Capture Technology Field Testing Materials for Carbon Capture

Liquid Absorbents

Solid Adsorbents Membranes

Alternative Gas Separation Pathways Summary and Technical Challenges

Technology Perspectives-

A Factual Document for the Workshop

Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020

Slide10

Few energy technologies are so far off from the achievable limits! There is a real opportunity here.

The Carbon Capture problem provides inspiration for deep new basic science.

Nanoscience opens up new opportunities to tailor materials for carbon capture - Liquids, membranes, and solids.

A challenge to design complex new interactions utilizing architecture, shape, controlled binding, new triggers, and new approaches to cooperative binding.

Summary of this reportCarbon Capture: Beyond 2020

10

Slide11

Liquid Absorbents: S

olubility and Pressure

CO

2

CO

2

A-CO

2

A-CO

2

A

P

CO2

c

CO2

O

2

N

2

H

2

O

liquid

gas

WE NEED TO BE ABLE TO CONTROL

THESE ISOTHERMS

A + CO

2

(g) ↔ A⋅CO

2

K

eq

(

T

)

Slide12

Fundamental Challenges in Liquid Absorbents

Can the non-ideal solution behavior in mixtures be predicted and exploited?

Can chemically / thermally stable materials be designed with high and reversible reactivity and specificity? Ionic Liquids…

How do we use both enthalpy AND entropy for separations? How do we vary these ‘independently’?

Δ

G

=

Δ

H

T

S

Gas-liquid interface controls kinetics – studies of structure and dynamics

Can complex fluids be employed?

 

Slide13

Intermolecular interactions of gases dissolved in liquidsUnderstand chemical and physical changes, dynamics, effects of complex mixturesNew chemistries and systems

Understand and independently control thermodynamic, kinetic, and transport characteristics of absorbents to cause controlled, reversible reactions with CO

2

Non-ideal absorptionPredict and use differences in shape and size (entropy) as an alternative to differences in interaction energy (enthalpy) to achieve both high capacity and high selectivity

Novel Solvents and ChemistriesCarbon Capture: Beyond 2020

Slide14

Understand the concentration and chemical state of targeted gases at liquid interfacesNew analytical and computational tools to examine both static and dynamic processes

Tailor surface chemistry to enhance reactivity and improve reversibility/

switchability

Design new tailored systems for faciitated transport mechanisms

Interfacial processes and kineticsCarbon Capture: Beyond 2020

CO

2

switches a solvent between non-ionic and ionic states

Slide15

Membrane Separations: Solubility and Diffusivity

Separation based on selective permeation of targeted gas

Selectivity based on relative solubility and diffusivity in membrane

Selectivity is not 100%

Membranes often have multiple layers with different functions

Trade-off on selectivity and permeability—need to have both

Change in pressure needed to drive separation

Slide16

High temperature transport membranes

– a possible model for CO

2

?

Slide17

New classes of “polymeric” membranes

Polymer-peptide block co-polymers

Electro-spun block copolymers

Many other new configurations…

Separate problems of

interaction energy tuning fromproblems of thin membrane integrity

Slide18

Bio-inspired approaches – especially new triggers

Slide19

Fundamental Challenges in Membranes

How can chemical and physical properties be used to design new membrane materials for enhanced performance?

Can new energy efficient driving forces be developed?

Can the structures and driving forces used by nature provide inspiration for new membranes?

What is the relationship between nano-scale structure and separation performance?

Can new materials be designed with nanoscale structures to enhance transport and selectivity?

Slide20

A rapidly expanding library of porous materials

Continuous innovation in control of:

Pore structure/ connectivity

Dimensionality and symmetry

Adsorbate site interactions

Slide21

Solid adsorption can occur via two mechanisms on particles or in porous solids

Physisorption

via weak interactions

Chemisorption via covalent bonds

Porous solid adsorbent material can be designed to be highly size- and shape-selectiveRequires selective removal of targeted gas and efficient recycling of materialRequires high capacity for targeted gas

Solid

Adsorbants

: Tunable Structures

Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020

Slide22

New synthetic approaches for 3D nanoscale membrane and solid sorbent materials, including self-assembly Understanding of key structural, physical and chemical features that will allow fine-tuning of guest binding and release

Understanding structural dynamics, transport dynamics at broad length scales in 3D structures

Hierarchical Environments for Carbon Capture

Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020

ZIF-69 has

substantially greater uptake capacity for CO2

over CO (Yaghi)

Slide23

New materials that respond to gas bindingDesign new material that CO2 absorption/desorption would result in a structural or chemical change

Resulting process is more thermo-neutral, alleviating energetic penalty

Non-linear responses

Exploit local effects to absorb multiple gas moleculesNanoscale confinement to act as mechanical sponges

Exploiting Cooperative PhenomenaCarbon Capture: Beyond 2020

Neutron studies at NIST revealed that structure of ZIF changes with sorption of CD4

Slide24

Fundamental Challenges in Solid Sorbents

Can theory predict new materials based on structure/property relationships?

Can physical and chemical phenomena be understood and controlled at the nanoscale to design materials with tuned composition and particle size?

Can materials with novel architectures permit highly selectivity uptake and efficient release of target gases?

How can huge energetic penalties associated with stripping be alleviated?

Slide25

Cross-Cutting Science for Carbon Capture

Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020

New Capture and Release Triggers

Materials and methods to realize new mechanisms for binding and/or release of target gases

Advances in Characterization

New tools for

in situ

and multi-dimensional analysis of structure and dynamics over broad spatial and temporal scales

Theory, Modeling and Simulation

New computational tools to understand and predict structure, dynamics, and interactions of materials and target gases

Slide26

Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020

26

Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020

26

Technology Maturation

& Deployment

Applied Research

Grand

Challenges

Discovery

and Use-Inspired Basic Research

Design and synthesis of hierarchical materials tailored on multiple length scales, from atomic to macroscopic

Predict and control properties of materials and chemical processes far from equilibrium

Conceive new materials and processes inspired by nature

Understand, predict, and control structure and dynamics of systems to obtain desired function

BESAC & BES Basic Research Needs Workshops

BESAC Grand Challenges Report

DOE Technology Office/Industry Roadmaps

Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020

Basic Energy Sciences

Goal: new knowledge / understanding

Mandate: open-ended

Focus: phenomena

Metric: knowledge generation

DOE Technology Offices:

FE

,

EERE

Goal: practical targets

Mandate: restricted to target

Focus: performance

Metric: milestone achievement

Demonstrate efficiencies and kinetics of separation systems at bench scale

Assess systems with simulated gas streams

Evaluate and benchmark systems with respect to cost, recyclability, lifetimes

Develop advanced separation systems with modeling, testing and analysis

Demonstrate use of advanced systems at pilot scale

Optimize process design and

integration

with

combustion

systems

Validate performance in

field

demonstrations

Evaluate cost

reduction

and scale-up

Couple characterization and computational tools to guide the synthesis of revolutionary new materials

Discover new trigger mechanisms to provide efficient gas uptake and release

Understand CO

2

and O

2

chemistry and transport in solution, at interfaces, and in confined spaces

Understand and predict interactions in complex environments

Discover “smart” materials that respond to stimuli for capture / release of target gases

Design durable materials optimized for both high permeability and high selectivity

Enable multi-dimensional analysis of capture and release processes

in situ

Characterize structure and dynamics of materials (solid, liquid, gas) and interfaces

in situ

across broad temporal and spatial scales

Slide27

If you are looking for a new problem to work on…

Carbon Capture seems like a really great one


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