Hospitality and Tourism
Hospitality and Tourism

Hospitality and Tourism - PowerPoint Presentation

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Standard 3 Transportation Airlines How popular is air travel In times of peace approximately 8 million people take a plane trip each day Wright b rothers first p lane 1903 Passenger travel on planes 1919 ID: 568690 Download Presentation

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Presentation on theme: "Hospitality and Tourism"— Presentation transcript


Hospitality and TourismStandard 3

Transportation: AirlinesSlide2

How popular is air travel?

In times of peace, approximately 8 million people take a plane trip each day.Slide3



rother’s first

plane: 1903

Passenger travel on planes: 1919

Charles Lindberg crossed Atlantic: 1927Jet service: 1952Federal Aviation Act: 1958Created FAA (Federal Aviation Administration)Airline Deregulation Act: 1978Allowed for competition

Air Transportation HistorySlide4

United States Air Travel

In the United States, the airlines are PRIVATELY owned!Slide5

Airline Codes

American Airlines – AA

Alaska Airlines – AS

Continental Airlines – CO

Delta Airlines – DL

Hawaiian Airlines – HAUnited Airlines - UASouthwest Airlines – WNSlide6

Key Aviation Terms


– The time a plane can land, be at a gate, and take off

Scheduled Service

– Flights made over regularly flown routes according to a published timetable

Nonscheduled Flights – Planes hired to fly to a particular place at a time specified by the customer – also could be a charter flightSlide7

Key Aviation Terms

Minimum Connecting Time

– the amount of time a reservationist must leave in between 2 flights to allow passengers and baggage to transfer from the first plane to the secondSlide8

Contract of Common Carriage

The carrier’s obligation to provide transportation as promised and the statement of the limit of liability for loss and damage claim if it does not fulfill its part of the bargain.Slide9

An airline network formed by a hub (large airport) and spokes (smaller airports)

Centralized operations

Most major airlines have one or more “hubs”

Passengers fly from “hub” to “spokes” and from “spokes” to “hub” to connect to other cities.It saves the airlines money


fortress hub is an airline-dominated airport.American = Dallas/Fort WorthDelta = AtlantaSouthwest = Dallas-Love FieldContinental = HoustonNorthwest = MinneapolisUnited = Chicago

Hub-and-Spoke SystemSlide10

Key Flight Terms

Nonstop Flights

– A flight form origin to destination with no intermediate stops

Direct/Through Flights

– A flight from origin to destination with one or more intermediate stops

Connection Flights – A flight from origin to destination with one or more intermediate stops where the passenger must change planesSlide12

Key Flight Terms

One-way Trip

– A trip from origin to destination with no return to origin

Round Trip

– A trip from origin to destination with return to origin. Flights follow same route and use same carrier.

Circle Trip – Same as round trip except one flight will follow a different route or use a different carrier

Open Jaw – A round trip where the passenger either departs for return trip from a different airport or returns to a different airport.Slide13

Tickets: Ticketless travel is known as e-tickets. Some airlines still issue paper tickets.

Check-in: Lets the airline know a passenger has arrived. Baggage is often weighed and checked-in.

Boarding passes: Can be obtained at the airline counter near the terminal entrance.

Gate Agent: Controls boarding procedures, usually about 20-30 minutes before flight time

Ticket lift: At some point, tickets are collected by the airline, to account for passengers



Baggage Options:


– Bags are checked during the check in process. Must be within weight and size restrictions. Fees could apply.

Most airlines are now charging a baggage fee.

Example - $25 for 1 checked bagHow much luggage is estimated that the airlines lose each day?Fewer than 1% of nearly 3 million bagsCarry-On – Must meet size restrictions - be able to fit in overhead bins or under the seat. Must meet all security restrictions.Slide15


Airport security is controlled by the government


Passengers walk through detectors

Possessions are put on a conveyor belt that goes through an x-ray machine

Checked luggage is screened as wellSlide16

Source: http://www.tsa.gov/311/

Carry-on LiquidsSlide17

Aviation JobsSlide18

Airport Manager

The duties of an airport manager:

Enforcing aviation rules and regulations

Planning and supervising maintenance and safety programs

Negotiating leases

Administering the budgetPromoting the airport’s useTraining and supervising employeesMaintaining good community relationsSlide19


Skycaps do curbside check-in

They also process your luggage

Can people use a Skycap when flying international?

No, they must pass through customsSlide20

Airplane Ground Services

Cleaning the cabin

Putting food and beverages from the flight kitchen on to the plane

Pumping drinking water aboard

Unloading and reloading baggage, cargo, and mail

Making a mechanical checkFueling the planeBoarding the passengersSlide21

Pilots and Crew

Pilots have a daily flight limitation of 10 hours for a two-person crew.

Flight crews may not exceed a maximum of 40 flight hours during any seven consecutive days.

Each must have a 24-hour rest period during any seven consecutive day period.Slide22

Flight Attendants

Preflight – Weather conditions and potential passenger problems at briefings. Checking supplies and equipment on board, greeting passengers, assisting passengers, seat belts, and safety briefings.

In-flight – Distribute pillows and blankets, serve drinks and meals, assist passengers, secure cabin, and handle medical emergenciesSlide23

Flight Attendants

Post-flight – Writing reports, reporting money, lost and found articles, medical emergencies, equipment needing attention

Flight attendants fly from 75 to 85 hours a month, plus they have about 50 hours a month duty time between flights.Slide24

Air Traffic Controller

Job duties of an air traffic controller

To keep airplanes flying safe in the sky

To keep airplanes away from each other

A stressful job

High payingSlide25




Airline Marketing MixSlide26

3 Most common commercial aircraft used


Capable of long-range travel

A318, A319, A321- most common A330/340- holds up to 525 passengers

A380- double decker- up to 853 passengers

BoeingCapable to long-range travel757- single aisle- up to 149 passengers767- extended range- single aisle- up to 245 passengers777- extended range- two aisle- up to 440 passengersMcDonnell Douglas (owned by Boeing)Focuses on short and mid-range aircraftMD-80 most popular- between 137-172 passengers

Product: Planes and SeatsSlide27


First Class

– Located at the front of the plane. Wider seats, more padding, extra space between rows. Built-in electronics (new). Board and deplane first. Movie and alcohol free. Meals.

Business Class

– Scaled down from first class. More room and comfort than coach. Service comparable to first class.

Coach Class – Seated in rear of plane. Narrow seats, close together. Overhead bins limited. Movies and alcohol cost.Slide28

Pitch is the distance from the front of one seat to the front of the seat behind.

Bulkhead seats are seats immediately behind the wall that separates coach from first class.

All U.S. flights are non-smoking.

Airplane Key TermsSlide29


Price is the most important factor when buying a travel product

Southwest is the USA’s largest low-fare carrierSlide30

How Are Fares Determined?

The Actual Cost of Service

Marketing Decisions

Route Assignment


ClassAdd-onsStopoversMaximum Permitted (MPM)Profit MotivesSlide31

Income or Expenses

Airlines largest source of income –


Airline Revenue from Business Travelers –


Airline Expenses:Planes Labor Landing feesFuel

Passenger meals




Airport Revenue

Traffic Operations

Airport Concessions

Parking LotsSlide33


Consolidators are high-volume ticket sellers who contract with carriers to consolidate or sell at reduced rates, airlines’ excess inventory – seats that would otherwise fly empty.Slide34

Yikes!!! Look at those PRICES!

The times when discounted fares are not available, occurring during holidays and peak-season are known as



“What do you mean it is Overbooked?”

How do no-shows affect an airline?

Empty seats

Lost income

Airlines overbook to keep all planes full at the time of flight

Voluntary Denied Boarding CompensationPeople give up their seats in return for a seat on the next available flight and some financial compensationSlide36

Place: Airport

How many airports are there


There are 17,000 airports in the United States

700 airports actually have facilities to handle passenger planesSlide37


Airports have two names:

Name of Airport

3-Letter Airport Code



Airport Facts

What airport is within a 90-minute flight of more than 50% of the U.S. and Canadian populations?

Pittsburgh (PIT)

What is North America’s largest-in-area airport?

Denver (DEN)

What airport is designed to handle as many as 250,000 arriving passengers a day?Atlanta- Hartsfield-Jackson -ATLSlide39

Busy Airports

The United States accounts for more than 1/3 of the world’s aircraft activity.

Of the world’s 30 busiest airports, 11 are in the United States.

Busiest Airports:

1. Hartsfield- Jackson (ATL)

5. Los Angeles Int’l (LAX)8. O’Hare (ORD)9. Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW)19. Denver (DEN)

21. John F. Kennedy Int’l (JFK)


Phoenix Sky Harbor (PHX)

24. Miami (MIA)

25. San Francisco (SFO)

27. Charlotte Douglas (CLT)

28. McCarran (LAS)Slide40

Airport Information

Airways are numbered just like highways on the ground.

The FAA are airway patrollers to keep things running smoothly in the air and in the airports.

The control tower is the nerve center of the airport.

The top of the tower is the cab.

Terminals are the buildings used by passengers in their procession from ground to air.Slide41


Frequent Flyer


An airline marketing strategy, that helps airlines to make a profit as well as build loyalty.

American –

AAdvantage ProgramJetBlue – TrueBlueDelta – Sky MilesSouthwest – Rapid RewardsUnited – Mileage PlusSlide42

American Airlines – Admirals ClubDelta Airlines – Sky Club

United Airlines – United Club

Airline Executive ClubsSlide43

Advantages of being a member of an Airline Executive Club:

Check-in services

Stow luggage

Local calls


TVsNewspapersDrinksSnacksMeeting roomsAirline Executive Clubs