Online aggressortargets aggressors and targets a comparison of associated youth characteristics Michele L - PDF document

Online aggressortargets aggressors and targets a comparison of associated youth characteristics Michele L
Online aggressortargets aggressors and targets a comparison of associated youth characteristics Michele L

Online aggressortargets aggressors and targets a comparison of associated youth characteristics Michele L - Description


Ybarra and Kimberly J Mitchell Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Adolescent Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Baltimore MD USA Crimes Against Children Research Center University of New Hampshire Durham NH USA Backgroun ID: 34901 Download Pdf

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Onlineaggressor/targets,aggressors,andtargets:acomparisonofassociatedyouthcharacteristicsMicheleL.YbarraandKimberlyJ.MitchellJohnsHopkinsBloombergSchoolofPublicHealth,CenterforAdolescentHealthPromotionandDiseasePrevention,Baltimore,MD,USA;CrimesAgainstChildrenResearchCenter,UniversityofNewHampshire,Durham,NH,USA YouthinvolvedinconventionalbullyingStudiesdetailingconventionalbullyingbehaviorcanbeusedasareferencepointforinvestigatingInternetharassment.Estimatesofbullyinginvolvement,ei-therasabully,victim,orboth,amongAmericanyouthareabout30%(Nanseletal.,2001;Haynieetal.,2001).Bulliesaregenerallyaggressive,notonlywiththeirpeersbutalsowithadults(Olweus,1994).Theytendtohavemorepositiveviewsofviolencecomparedtootherchildren(Bowers,Smith,&Binney,1994),areimpulsive,andtendtolackempathy(Olweus,1994).Youthwhobullyaretypicallystrongerandbiggerthantheirpeers(Olweus,1994).Theyaremorelikelytospendtimewithfriendsfrequentlycomparedtonon-bullyinvolvedpeersintheyoungergrades(Forero,McLellan,Rissel,&Bauman,1999),thoughtheirpopularitytendstowaneinhighschool(Olweus,1994).Victimsofbullying,ontheotherhand,aremuchmoreintrovertedandhavelowerself-esteem(Olweus,1993).Theseyouthtypicallyareanxious,sensitive,cautious,andreacttoaggressionbywithdrawingfromthesituation.Theyaremorelikelytoreportfeelingsofbeingostracizedandofloneliness(Foreroetal.,1999).Boysaremorelikelytobebothtargetsandperpetratorsofbullying,especiallydirect(i.e.,physical)bullying,butalsoindirect(e.g.,slandering,manipulationoffriendships)bullying(Foreroetal.,1999;Olweus,1993).Similarlypoorratingsofschoolcommitmentareofferedforbulliesandtargets(Foreroetal.,1999).Long-termeffectsseenintoadulthoodincludedelinquency,crime,andalcoholabuseforbullies(Loeber&Disheon,1984;Magnusson,Stattin,&Duner,1983),anddepressionandlowerself-es-teemforvictims(MagnussonOlweus,1993).Ingeneral,characteristicsofbully/victims,youthwhoarebothbulliedandbullyothers,tendtobemorealignedwithbulliesthantargets.Forexample,theyaremorelikelytobemale(Nanseletal.,2001;Haynieetal.,2001;Foreroetal.,1999),toreportpooracademicachievement,andtoengageincigarettesmoking(Nanseletal.,2001).Ontheotherhand,theyreportmanyofthesocialchallengesvictimsdo,includingpoorrelationshipswithpeersandheight-enedfeelingsofloneliness(Nanseletal.,2001).Studiesindicate,however,thatbully/victimsmaybeadistinctsubgroupamongthoseinvolvedinbullyingastheylikelyaremanifestingthegreatestpsycho-socialchallenge(Olweus,1993,1994;Nanseletal.,2001;Austin&Joseph,1996;Haynieetal.,2001;Foreroetal.,1999;Kumpulainen,Rasanen,Hentto-nenetal.,1998;Kaltiala-Heino,Rimpela,Rantenen,&Rimpela,2000).Anumberofstudieshavereportedthatbully/victimshavehigherratesofdepression(Kaltiala-Heinoetal.,2000),anhedonia(Kumpulai-nenetal.,1998),somatization(Foreroetal.,1999),co-occurringdisorders(Kaltiala-Heinoetal.,2000),andpsychiatricreferral(Kumpulainenetal.,1998)comparedtobulliesonly,targetsonly,andyouthnotinvolvedinbullying.Bully/victimsalsohavebeennotedtohavethehighestratesofbehaviorproblemscomparedtoallothergroups(Austinetal.,1996;Wolke,Woods,BloomÞeld,&Karstadt,2000).Addi-tionalpsychosocialchallengeshavebeennotedtobeextremelysevere,includinginterpersonalproblems(Nanseletal.,2001;Haynieetal.,2001;Kumpulai-nenetal.,1998;Foreroetal.,1999),andoveralllevelsoffunctioning(Austinetal.,1997;Haynieetal.,2001;Kumpulainenetal.,1998;Foreroetal.,1999)comparedtotheirbullyandnon-bullyinvolvedpeers.Finally,inadditiontoÞndingssuggestingpoorcaregiverÐchildrelationshipsassociatedwithchildaggression(Barnow,Lucht,&Freyberger,2001),bully/victimsaremostlikelytoreporttheirparentsÕdisciplineandmonitoringpracticesaserraticandemotionalwarmthtobelackingcomparedtobothbulliesonlyandtargetsonly(Bowersetal.,1994).Itispossiblethat,similartoconventionalbullying,asimilarsubsetofÔbully-victimÕyouthcanbeidenti-ÞedamongthoseinvolvedinInternetharassment.UsingdatafromtheYouthInternetSafetySurvey,themostdetailedsurveyofyoungInternetuserstodate(Finkelhoretal.,2000b),thecurrentinvesti-gationaimstoexpanduponthetraditionalbully/victimliteraturebyexaminingInternetaggressor/targetsandidentifyingtheirpotentiallyuniquecharacteristicsandchallenges.DatasourcesamplingmethodTheYouthInternetSafetySurvey(YISS)wasbasedonatwo-stageprobabilitysample,resultinginanationallyrepresentativegroupofyoungregularInternetusers1,501)(Finkelhoretal.,2000b).TheresearchwasapprovedandsupervisedbytheUniversityofNewHampshireÕsHumanSubjectsCommitteeandcon-formedtotherulesmandatedbyresearchprojectsfundedbytheDepartmentofJustice.PhonenumberswerederivedfromtheSecondNa-tionalIncidenceStudyofMissing,Abducted,Runaway,andThrownawayChildren(NISMART2).NISMART2wasanationallyrepresentativetelephonesurvey,con-ductedbytheInstituteforSurveyResearchatTempleUniversity(Hammer,Finkelhor,&Sedlak,2002).HouseholdsthatwereidentiÞedashavingatleastonechildbetween9and17yearsofageduringtheNISMART2adultscreeningprocesswereßaggedforpossibleYISSselection.Intotal,6,594phonenumberswereforwardedtoYISSinvestigators.AllphonenumbersreceivedbyYISSfromNISMART2weredialedandsuccessfulcontactwasmadewith3,446householdsbytheendofthesurveyperiod.Seventy-Þvepercentofthosehouseholdscontactedcompletedtheeligibilityscreen,72%ofwhichwereidentiÞedaseligibleforYISSparticipation.Finally,82%1,501)ofeligiblehouseholdscompletedboththeadultandyouthsurveys(Finkelhoretal.,2000b)whenthedesiredsamplesizewasreached.Unfortunately,characteristicsofeligible,non-participantswerenotavailableforcomparison.Onlineaggressor/targets,aggressors,andtargets oneortwo(i.e.,dislikingschool)werecomparedtoallothers.Finally,thereportofbullyingvictimiza-tionwasindicatedforyouthreportinghavingbeenei-therhitorpickedonbyanotherchildinthepreviousCaregiver–childrelationships.Youthrespondentswereaskedtoratetheirdailyinteractionswiththeircaregiverbaseduponninequestions.Eachresponsewasmeasuredona4-pointLikertscalerangingfromverybadly,toverywellonemotionalindicators,andnever/rarelytoallofthetimeformonitoringanddisci-plineindicators.Exploratoryfactoranalysissuggestedthreefactors(alleigenvalues�1):1)emotionalclose-ness(i.e.,howwellcaregiverandchildgetalong,care-givertrustofchild,discussingproblemswithcaregiverwhenfeelingsadorintrouble,andfrequencyofhavingfuntogether),2)generalmonitoring(i.e.,frequencywithwhichcaregiverknowswherechildis,andwithwhomchildisspendingtime),and3)discipline(i.e.,frequencyofÔnaggingÕchild,takingawayprivileges,andyelling).OnevariablewascreatedforeachoftheabovethreeaspectsofthecaregiverÐchildrelationshipbyreversescoringtheitemstomakeahigherscorereßectapoorerrating,andthensummingthescoresoftheassociatedvariables(Ranges:emotionalcloseness:4Ð16;parentalmonitoring:2Ð8;harshdiscipline:3Ð12).Finally,becauseofindicationsofnon-linearity,eachwasdi-chotomizedatonestandarddeviationabovethemean.Internetuse.SeveralInternetusagecharacteristicswereincludedintheanalyses.AveragefrequencyanddurationofInternetuseweregatheredviayouthreport.Baseduponindicationsofnon-linearity,eachwascat-egorizedatonestandarddeviationabovethemean(6daysperweek/3hoursperday,respectively).YouthwerealsoaskedforwhatactivitiestheyusetheInternetmostoftenandfourcategorieswerecreatedtoreßectcommunication-relatedactivities:1)chatrooms,2)email,3)InstantMessaging,and4)allotheractivities(e.g.,playinggames,schoolassignments,downloadingsoftware).LocationofInternetaccesswasreportedbyyouthandenteredasusingtheInternetmostoftenfromhomeversusallotherplaces.Additionally,youthwereaskedtoratetheimportanceoftheInternettothembasedupona5-pointLikertscale(notatallimportantÐveryimportant).Thiswasdichotomizedintotwocat-egories:notatalltoaverageimportance(referencegroup)versusveryorextremelyimportant.Respond-entswerealsoaskedtoratetheirexpertiseontheInternetfrom1to5,rangingfromnovicetoexpert.Adichotomousvariablewascreatedtocomparealmostexpert/expertusersversuslesslearned(referenceInternetcontrols.TwoindicationsofrestrictionsofInternetusewereincludedintheanalyses.Caregiverswereaskedwhetherblockingsoftwarewasusedonthehomecomputer(yes/no),aswellaswhethertherewerehouseholdrulesaboutacceptableInternetpracticeDemographics.Youth-reportedagewasdichotomizedat15yearsandolderversusyounger.Self-reportedracewasdichotomizedasWhiteversusallother.Caregiversreportedyouthgenderand1998householdincome.Incomewascategorizedatonestandarddevi-ationabovethemean($75,000andhigher)versusStatisticalmethodsStata7.0(StataCorp,2000)wasusedforallanalyses.Caseswererequiredtohavevaliddataforthemajorityofvariablesanalyzed.SpeciÞcally,casesmissingmorethantwodatapointsinasubcategoryofchildcharac-teristics(i.e.,onlineaggressionbehaviors,Internetuse,psychosocialcharacteristics,ordemographics)wereexcluded.Threecaseswerethusdropped,resultinginaÞnalsampleof1,498.ÔDonotknowÕanswerswerecategorizedasÔsymptomabsentÕ(ineachvariableaffected).Missingvalueswereimputedbaseduponbest-setregression(StataCorp,2000).Mostaffectedvariableshadlessthan1%imputed,exceptforhouse-holdincome(7.28%ofvalues),averagenumberofdaysInternetisused(1.13%values),andthefrequencyofcaregiverÔnaggingÕ(1.13%ofvalues).Followingexploratorydataanalysis,testswereusedtoidentifysigniÞcantdifferencesinthedatadis-tributionbetweeneachofthefourgroupsofyouthbaseduponeachspeciÞccharacteristicexamined.Next,inordertoquantifyspeciÞcdifferencesbetweenaggressor/targetandotherInternetharassment-involvedyouth,twoparsimoniousmodelsofsigniÞcantcharacteristicswerecreatedusingbackwardstepwisedeletion(%-3;b.3;.05).TheÞrstmodelcomparedaggressor/targetstovictim-onlyyouth,whilethesecondcomparedaggressor/targetstoaggressor-onlyyouth.DescriptiveresultsAlmostoneinÞve(19%),youngregularInternetusersinthesamplewereinvolvedinonlineharass-mentinsomecapacitywithinthepreviousyear.Threepercentwereaggressor/targets.Anadditional4%reportedbeingtargetsofaggression,and12%reportedaggressivebehaviortowardsothersonline.Thedataindicatedthataggressoryouthfrequentlytargetedpeopletheyknewinconventionalenviron-ments.Youthwhoreportedtheyhadharassedorembarrassedsomeoneonlinewereaskedtoreportwhethertheyknewthetargetinperson;84%(saidtheydid.Incontrast,fewyouthwhoreportedbeingatargetofInternetaggressionreportedknow-ingtheharasserinperson(31%,30).Ingeneral,Internetaggressionwassimilartotraditionalbully-inginitsrepetitivenature;55%ofInternettargetsofaggressionindicatedtheywereharassedmorethanoncebythesameindividual,with16%harassedfourormoretimesinthepreviousyear.Theprevalenceofmostyouthcharacteristicsas-sessedwashigherforaggressor/targetyouthcom-paredtonon-harassmentinvolvedyouth(seeTable1).Ingeneral,psychosocialandcaregiverÐchildrelationshipcharacteristicsweresimilarforOnlineaggressor/targets,aggressors,andtargets Theparsimoniouslogisticregressionmodelcom-paringaggressor/targetandaggressor-onlyyouthrevealedthattheysharemanysimilarities(Onlyonecharacteristicwasretainedintheparsi-moniouslogisticregressionmodelandwasabletosigniÞcantlydiscriminatebetweenthetwogroupsofyouth.ThosewhoreportedusingtheInternetthreehoursadayormoreversusfewerwere2.5timesaslikely(OR:2.51,95%CI:1.20,5.23)toalsoreportengaginginaggressor/targetbehaviorcomparedtoaggressor-onlybehavior.ConsequencesofInternetharassmentAsreportedpreviously,one-thirdofyouthharassedonlinereportedfeelingemotionallydistressedasadirectresult(Finkelhoretal.,2000b).Theoddsofdistressappearedtoberelatedtostatusofharass-mentinvolvement.Subsequentanalysesinthecur-rentinvestigationrevealedthataggressor/targetsofonlineharassmentwerealmostsixtimesaslikely(OR:5.94,95%CI:3.06,11.51)toreportemotionaldistressasaresultofbeingthetargetofInternetharassmentcomparedtovictim-onlyyouth.OverlapofparticipationinconventionalandInternetbullyingManyyouthinvolvedinInternetharassmentarealsotargetsofconventionalbullying.Overhalfofaggressor/targets(56%)reportbeingthetargetofofßinebullying,while49%ofaggressor-onlyand44%ofvictim-onlyyouthreportsimilarexperien-ces.Thesedataalsosuggesthowever,thatsomeyouthareexclusivelyinvolvedinharassmentonline.Thus,forsomeyouthwhoarebullied,theInternetmaysimplybeanextensionoftheschoolyard,withvictimizationcontinuingafterthebellandonintothenight.Forotheryouthvictimsofconventionalbullying,theInternetmaybeaplacetoassertdominanceoverothersascompensationforbeingbulliedinperson.Andforyouthwhoarenotinvolvedinconventionalbully-ing,theInternetmaybeaplacewheretheytakeonapersonathatismoreaggressivethantheirin-personpersonality.Internetharassmentandconventionalbullyingdifferinoneimportantaspectofasymmetricalpower;oneÕsabilitytokeephisorheridentityun-knownisauniquemethodofassertingdominanceonlinethatconventionalbullyingdisallows.Thisimportantdifferencemayhelpexplaintheincom-pleteoverlapinparticipationofbothconventionalandonlineharassment.Infact,itisinterestingtonotethatthemajorityofaggressors(84%)indicateknowingwhotheirtargetis,whereasmosttargets(69%)indicatetheaggressorisunknowntothem.Itcouldalsobe,however,thataggressorssaytheyÔknowÕthevictim,butarereactingtoanonlineper-sonaonehascreatedforonlineinteraction.Comparisonsofcharacteristicstoconventionalbully/victimsAswithbully/victims(Kaltiala-Heinoetal.,2000;Haynieetal.,2001),aggressor/targetssharemorecharacteristicswithaggressor-onlythanvictim-onlyyouth.Additionally,similartopreviousreportsofbully/victims(Haynieetal.,2001;Foreroetal.,1999),psychosocialchallengeismostfrequentlyendorsedbyaggressor/targetscomparedtoallotheryouth.TwoinÞve(44%)reportproblembehaviors(Austinetal.,1996;Wolkeetal.,2000),andone-quarterhasengagedindrinking(26%)andsmoking(23%)onmultipleoccasions(Nanseletal.,2001;Kaltiala-Heinoetal.,2000).Theyalsohavethehighestrateofcurrentdepressivesymptomatology(16%)(Kaltiala-Heinoetal.,2000).TheseÞndingssuggestthatlikeconventionalbully/victims(Haynieetal.,2001),aggressor/targetsindicatethepoorestpsychosocialfunctioningandarelikelyinneedofinterventionandservices.Incontrasttoyouthinvolvedinconventionalbul-lying(Nanseletal.,2001;Olweus,1994),aggressor-onlyyouthandaggressor/targetsaremorelikelytobehighschoolratherthanmiddleschoolage.SESandrace/ethnicitydemonstratesimilarlyweakassociationswithbothInternetaggressor/targetandofßinebully/victimstatus(Nanseletal.,2001;Wolkeetal.,2000).UniqueInternetcharacteristicsIdentifyinguniqueInternetcharacteristicsisanintegralcomponentofunderstandingyouthInternetaggressor/targets.TheseyouthareintenseInternetuserswhoareconÞdentoftheirabilities.Comparedtovictim-onlyyouth,aggressor/targetsarethreetimesaslikelytoreportusingtheInternetfor6daysormore,and2.5timesaslikelytoratethemselvesalmostoranexpertatInternetnavigationafteradjustingforothersigniÞcantcharacteristics.Fur-ther,whileaggressor/targetsandaggressor-onlyyoutharecomparableintermsofmostcharacteris-tics,theoddsofreportingaggressor/targetbehaviorare2.5foldhigherforyouthwhousetheInternetthreehoursadayorlongerversusfewer.Notably,averagedailyusageissimilarforaggressor/targetsandtargets-only,indicatingthattheÔtimeatriskÕmaybeintensedailyuseinsteadoffrequentweeklyMeasuringInternetharassmentThestudyofInternetharassmentisstillinitsrel-ativeinfancyandstandardizedmethodsformeas-uringthebehaviorhavenotyetbeendeveloped.ExpertsinadolescenthealthcraftedthequestionsinOnlineaggressor/targets,aggressors,andtargets ThecaregiverÕsroleThemajorityofcurrentInternetsafetyguidelines(e.g.,AmericanAcademyofPediatrics,2001;Magid,1998)recommendparentalinvolvementandmonit-oringoftheirchildrenÕsInternetusetoensuresafeandappropriateonlinenavigation.Thesearecer-tainlyworthyrecommendations.Resultsofthisstudyindicate,however,thatadditionalmeasuresarenecessary.Infact,neithercaregiverreportoftheuseofblockingsoftwarenortheirindicationofhouseholdrulesaboutInternetusewasrelatedtoasigniÞcantdifferenceinthelikelihoodofbeingin-volvedinInternetharassment.Further,youthreportaccessingtheInternetfrommanyplacesotherthanthehome,includingschool,thelibrary,andotherpeopleÕshomes;27%ofvictim-onlyyouthsaidtheylogontotheInternetmostfrequentlyfromsome-whereotherthantheirownhome,asdo20%ofaggressor/targetsand25%ofaggressor-onlyyouth.Thirdly,olderyouth,whotendtobemoreinde-pendentanddemandmoreprivacy,aremorelikelytobeinvolvedinInternetharassment.ProfessionalsworkingwithyouthwhoareaskedbycaregiverswhatmethodspromotesafeInternetusefortheirchildrenshouldemphasizegeneralpositiveparent-ingstyles.Indeed,generalmonitoringandpositivecaregiverÐchildrelationshipsmaybemoreimportantfactorsinInternetsafetyasglobalparentalmonit-oringissigniÞcantlyrelatedtoadecreaseinthelikelihoodofbeinganonlineaggressor.Aswithconventionalvictimsofbullying,however(Nanseletal.,2001),parentalmonitoringisgenerallyhighamongharassmentvictims.Whiletheunderlyingreasonisnotclear,thisindicatesthatalternativeinterventionsmaybenecessary.RecommendationsforinterventionsClearly,notonlyparentsbutalsoyouthshouldbeempoweredandresponsiblefortheirownonlinesafety.Youth-orientedhealthcareprofessionalsshouldbeasawareoftheresourceasyoutharethemselvesintermsofgeneratingInternetsafetytechniques.Forexample,assuggestedbyFinkelhoretal.(2000b),youthshouldbeincludedinadvocacyandeducationalcampaignsaboutstandardandhealthyInternetbehavior,andencouragedtotakeresponsibilityforyouth-orientedaspectsoftheInter-net.YoungpeopleshouldbeviewedasresourcesforcraftinginterventionmessagesthatarewellreceivedbyyouthandtakeintoaccountrealisticexpectationsofbehaviorchangeandInternetbehavior.MessagesaboutmodifyingInternetusagebysug-gestingyouthspendlesstimeonline,orstayingawayfromspeciÞctypesofsites,isnotwhollysufÞcientinaddressingtheproblemofInternetharassment,giventhepreponderanceanddegreeofnon-Internetrelatedcharacteristicssuchasproblembehavior.InterventionsaimedatconventionalpsychosocialissuesneedtointegrateanInternetcomponent.Forexample,currentlyimplementedbullyingpreventionprogramsshouldreßectyouthinteractionsoftodayandrecognizethattheInternetrepresentsanewmodebywhichaggressionandbullyingbehaviorisexpressed.AdditionalmodulesspeakingspeciÞcallyaboutInternetharassmentissuesshouldbeadded,includingbehaviorsthatconstituteharassment,andtheassociatedpsychologicaldistressexperiencedbysomeyouthwhoaretargeted.DiscussionpointsshouldintegrateInternetharassmentintothecon-versationofbullying,recognizingthatmanyyouthareinvolvedinbothtypesofaggression.ThecurrentstudyisanimportantÞrststepinillu-minatingthecharacteristicsofyouthaggressor/targetsontheInternet.Manyparallelsbetweenon-lineaggressor/targetsandofßinebully/victimswereidentiÞed,includingbehaviorproblemsanddepres-sivesymptomatology.Yet,anumberofimportantdifferenceswerealsoidentiÞed.ThereisanotablelackofsigniÞcantdifferencesbetweenmaleandfe-maleyouthandanincreasedriskamongolderteensratherthanyounger.Futurestudiesarenecessarytodeterminehowpsychosocialchallengeaswellasmentalillnessmayincreasethelikelihoodofnegat-iveexperiencesonline,astheyhavebeennotedoff-line.Andaswithresearchaimedatin-personpsychosocialchallengesyoutharefacing,futureInternet-relatedresearchmaydowelltofocusontheprotectivefactorsofsafeInternetnavigation.AcknowledgementThisresearchwascommissionedbytheNationalCenterforMissingandExploitedChildren,andsupportedbytheOfÞceofJuvenileJusticeandDelinquencyPrevention,theAssociationofSchoolsofPublicHealthandtheCentersforDiseaseControl,PreventionResearchCenters,Grant#U48/CorrespondencetoKimberlyMitchell,CrimesagainstChildrenRe-searchCenterÐWestEdge,UniversityofNewHampshire,7LeavittLane,Durham,NH03824,USA;Tel:603-682-1888;Fax:603-862-2899;Email:AmericanAcademyofPediatrics.(2001).MediamattersRetrievedJuly,2003,fromhttp://www.aap.org/AmericanPsychologicalAssociation.(1999).andstatisticalmanualofmentaldisorders(DSM-IV)Washington,DC:AmericanPsychiatricAssociation.Onlineaggressor/targets,aggressors,andtargets

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