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Slide1

SEPT 15 - OCT 7 Wide range of psychology questionnaires (traits, social attitudes, life goals). 1 hour of credit. Find it here SONA

Annual online survey for 1 hour of credit

Fall Mass Testing

Introductory psychology students

Slide2

6 Broad Theoretical Perspectives

Psychodynamic PerspectiveSigmund Freud:“Parapraxes” Free associationTalking cureFamous case studies: Anna O

Slide3

Sigmund Freud

1856-1939 Austria

Neurologist

Specialized in

hysteric

patients

Conflicts of the

unconscious mind

Founded

psychodynamic

perspective

focuses on

unconscious dynamic processes

that govern behavior

Slide4

Psychodynamic Perspective

Behaviour determined by unconscious forces

Esp. conflicts about sexuality

Very controversial ideas“Psychoanalytic theory”Theory explaining personality, motives and disorders via “dynamic unconscious processes”

Slide5

2. Behavioral

Perspective

Ivan Pavlov

John Watson E.L. ThorndikeB.F. Skinner

Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning

Slide6

2. Behavioral Perspective

Central assumption:

Focus on

observables

, ignore

invisible “mind

stuff

Behavior is observable. Therefore, psychology

is and

should only be

science of

behavior

Influenced by

logical positivism

, a early 20

th

century school

of philosophy

all knowledge is grounded in observable facts”

Slide7

Behaviourism

John B. Watson (1878-1958)Landmark 1919 critique of “schools”: structuralism, functionalism, gestalt, Freud, in Psychological Review: Behaviorist Manifesto Psychology should be science of “behaviour”.Behaviour = observable responses or activitiesRadical reorientation of scientific psychology toward a science only of observable behaviourStudy of consciousness abandonedCognitive psychology topics abandoned until 1950s

Slide8

John Watson and the Nature-Nurture Debate

Radical “environmentalism” “give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man and thief…”Pioneered application of classical conditioning to understanding of disorders, especially phobias.Re-oriented psychology toward “stimulus-response relationships”Behaviorism became known as “S-R psychology”

Slide9

Behaviourism of B. F. Skinner

B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)Principles of operant conditioningResponses followed by desired outcomes increase in frequencyControversyThere is no free willInnate differences are unimportant Cognitive psychology is pointless Radical environmentalistBest-selling authorBeyond Freedom and DignityWalden II

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3. The Cognitive Perspective

Behav focus

too

limited, restrictive

(but Skinner disagrees always)

What about….

attention, memory, reasoning, problem-solving, concept formation…???

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Putting the Psyche Back in Psychology: The Return of Cognition

Cognition = mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge1950’s and 60’s – Piaget, Chomsky, and SimonApplication of scientific methods to studying internal mental eventsCognitive psychology: the new dominant perspective?

Slide12

3. The Cognitive Perspective

Why then? (1950s) 1) Cognitive development theory e.g., Jean Piaget, 1950s2) Rise of “Information theory”, digital processors, computers e.g., Herbert Simon, 1950s3) Language development theory e.g., Noam Chomsky, 1950s

Slide13

3. The Cognitive Perspective

e.g. importing information-theory

concepts into psychology

memory:

“encode, store, retrieve”

thinking:

“parallel distributed

processing”

perception:

“computation models

of vision”

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4. Humanistic Psychology

Existentialism, Phenomenology

Rebellion against

ratomorphic

-robotic

” psychology

Main assumption:

>we are not slaves to conditioning

>subjectivity IS important to behavior

Slide15

Prev

perspectives are all de

human

izing.

New perspective needed:

H

umanistic

Rise of humanistic psychology (“Third Force”)

1961

Journal of Humanistic Psychology

1963

Association for Humanistic Psychology

1971

APA Division 32

Focus on what is uniquely human:

conscious

awareness

freedom of

choice

desire for individual

growth

Slide16

Humanistic values freedom & growthHumanistic therapy freedom..to..grow Carl Rogers Client-Centered therapy Abraham Maslow “Self-actualization”

Slide17

“Be All You Can Be”

self-actualization slogan adopted by US Army

Slide18

SEPT 15 - OCT 7 Wide range of psychology questionnaires (traits, social attitudes, life goals). 1 hour of credit. Find it here SONA

Annual online survey for 1 hour of credit

Fall Mass Testing

Introductory psychology students

Slide19

5. Biological Perspectives

Behavioral Genetics

Are behavior differences (at least partly) due to gene differences?

Which genes?

How do genes & environments

interact developmentally?

Slide20

Twins Cover Story

Slide21

5. Biological Perspectives

Behavioral Neuroscience

Brain

 behavior

Locationalization

Connectivity

Memory, F

ear, Mentalizing, Empathy, ..

God Spot (huh?)

Slide22

Physiological Psychology: The Biological Basis of Behaviour

Biological perspective - behaviour explained in terms of physiological processesJames Olds (1956)Electrical stimulation of the brain evokes emotional responses in animalsRoger Sperry (1981)Left and right brain specializationDonald Hebb (1949)Cell-assemblies describe neural networks

Slide23

6. Evolutionary Perspective

Assumption

Body’s

are piles of physical modules laid down by evolution

Brains

are piles of information- processing modules laid down by evolution

Slide24

6. Evolutionary Perspective

e.g., David Buss

mate preferences

jealousy

Slide25

Evol Psych Example (title)

example of research

by David Buss

Slide26

Scenario 1

you discover that your partner is having sex with someone else

Slide27

Scenario 2

you discover that your partner is in love with someone else

Slide28

Possible explanations

1) Cultural learning of patriarchal norms2) Innate evolutionary mechanisms that differ between M and W

parental

investment

paternity certainty

Slide29

Slide30

Positive Psychology Movement

Martin Seligman has a eureka moment:

1975 depression

 role of “

pessimistic attitude

1990

“Dad, why are you always so grumpy?”

(daughter)

1997 psychology itself is far too grumpy

1998 elected to of APA

Humanistic Perspective 2.0

Where is our research on human happiness?

We need a science of..

Positive

experiences

Positive

traits

Positive

institutions

Positive

communities

Slide31

Contemporary Psychology: Cultural Diversity

Ethnocentrism – viewing one’s own group as superior and as the standard for judgingHistorically: middle and upper class white males studying middle and upper class white males1980’s – increased interest in how cultural factors influence behaviourgrowing global interdependenceincreased cultural diversity

Slide32

Cross-Cultural Researchcomparing and contrasting people of different cultures (e.g., human values)test generalizability of psyc theoryMulticultural ResearchEthnic group phenomena within societiesAcculturation, immigration, language

Slide33

Feminist Psychology

Psychological approach analyzing the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behaviour of the two sexes

Slide34

History of Psychology in Canada

James Mark BaldwinWorked in Wundt’s lab, 1880sPhD from PrincetonUofT in 1891: 1st Psy laboratory in CanadaCo-founder of APA, 1892Donald Hebb (McGill) 1940s-70sFounder of neuroscience of learning Hebbian learning: the cellular level of learningHebb’s Law: "Neurons that fire together wire together.“Cell assembly theory of learning Brenda Milner (McGill) 1950s, presentStudent of Donald HebbFounder of the neuroscience of memory Landmark studies of patient “HM”

Slide35

Canadian Psychological Association www.cpa.ca

CPA formed in 1939 to ensure psychologists contributed to war effort. Now serves to advance psychological research, promote and regulate psychological education, and support the practice of psychology in Canada. CPA promotes research:Scientific journals Canadian Psychology Canadian Journal of Experimental PsychologyScientific conferences Regulates psychological training by accreditating graduate programs in clinical psychology

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36

CPA Divisions

Slide37

©2001 Prentice Hall

Psychology Today

Research Disciplines

Professional Specialties

Slide38

1. Physiological 2. Experimental 3. Cognitive 4. Developmental

Research Disciplines

Slide39

Research Disciplines

5. Social

6. Personality

7. Abnormal

8. Quantitative

Slide40

Professional Psychology

1

st

clinic in 1896 (U. of Pennsylvania)

1937 only 1/5 APA members reported any interest in clinical work.

WWII … rapid rise of

clinical psychology

Professionalization spreads to other areas

Counseling Psychology

School Psychology

Forensic Psychology (Courts, Prisons)

Slide41

Interdisciplinary

Growing movement to combine strengths of different fieldsRecent trend is towards interdisciplinary research questions

Slide42

What Will Happen Next?

The future is up to your generation of critical thinkers.

Slide43

Table 1.2 Overview of Six Contemporary Theoretical Perspectives in Psychology

Slide44

Psychology Today: A Thriving Science and Profession

Psychology is the science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it and and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.Research: Seven major areas - Personality, Psychometrics, Social, Cognitive, Physiological, Developmental, and ExperimentalApplied Psychology: Four major areas - Clinical, Counselling, Educational and School, and Industrial Organization

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SEPT 14 - OCT 7 Wide range of psychology questionnaires (traits, social attitudes, life goals). 1 hour of credit. Find it here SONA

Annual online survey for 1 hour of credit

Fall Mass Testing

Introductory psychology students

Slide47

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Slide49

Clinical Psychologists are not:

Psychotherapists

Anyone who does any type of psychotherapy

Psychoanalysts

Individuals who receive training in psychoanalysis

Psychiatrists

Medical doctors who diagnose and treat mental disorders

Slide50

CPA Accredited Clinical Programs

Concordia UniversityDalhousie UniversityLakehead UniversityMcGill UniversityQueen’s UniversitySimon Fraser UniversityUniversité de MontréalUniversité LavalUniversity of British ColumbiaUniversity of Calgary

University of ManitobaUniversity of New BrunswickUniversity of OttawaUniversity of ReginaUniversity of SaskatchewanUniversity of VictoriaUniversity of WaterlooUniversity of Western OntarioUniversity of WindsorYork University

Slide51

What Areas do Psychology Undergraduates Pursue?

PsychologyOtherCounselingEducationSocial workMedicineLaw Health SciencesBusinessSociology

Slide52

What Psychologists Do

Three categories of activities for psychologists:Teaching and doing research in universities and collegeProviding health or mental-health services (psychological practice)Conducting research or applying its findings in non- academic settings such as business, sports, government, law, and the military.

Slide53

Studying Psychology: Seven Organizing Themes

Themes related to psychology as a field of study:

Psychology is empirical (Theme 1)

Psychology is theoretically diverse (Theme 2)

Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context (Theme 3).

Themes related to psychology’s subject matter:

Behaviour is determined by multiple causes (Theme 4)

Behaviour is shaped by cultural heritage (Theme 5)

Behaviour is influenced jointly by heredity and environment (Theme 6).

Finally, people’s experience of the world is highly subjective (Theme 7).

Slide54

TAKE HOME MESSAGE

Psychology is a broad field, with many specialties, but fundamentally, it is a

science

of behavior and mental processes

Slide55

Professional Psychology

1. Clinical

Psych

2. Counseling

Psych

3.

Educational Psych

4. Industrial/Organizational

(I/O

) [business psyc]

Slide56

Some I/O sub-disciplines

a. Personnel Psyc

b. Organizational Psyc

c. Engineering Psyc

"

Human Factors

Psychology

"

e.g., human-computer interaction

e.g., human-robot interaction

Slide57

Some I/O sub-disciplines

Slide58

Psychology as a Profession

Slide59

©2001 Prentice Hall

Next time…

Psychology

as a

Science

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