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American Imperialism (1877-1917)

Becoming a World Power. Questioning the Causes. Why would the United States choose to enter the competition for foreign lands and markets?. George Washington’s Warning. “entangling alliances”. Early Departures:.

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American Imperialism (1877-1917)

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American Imperialism (1877-1917)

Becoming a World PowerSlide2

Questioning the Causes

Why would the United States choose to enter the competition for foreign lands and markets?

George Washington’s Warning

“entangling alliances”

Early Departures:Monroe DoctrinePerry in Japan (1853)Causes of US Imperialism:EconomicIndustrialization, Competition, Need for MarketsDesire for world power?Slide3

Essential Question

To what extent was the late nineteenth-century and early twentieth century United States expansionism a continuation of past United States expansionism and to what extent was it a


For Imperialism

Economic Growth


Investments (banana republics)

Promote Security


Navy - Naval Advisory Board 1881

Preserve American Spirit

Henry Cabot Lodge, Theodore Roosevelt

Social Darwinism


Imperialism: Pros & Cons

Economic Expansion

 Regional Tension  War

Building Navy = European Model  War

US should not

be potential leaders of oppressed foreign peoples

Parallel to treatment of American Indians


William Jennings Bryan

Anti-Imperialist League (1898)Slide5

William H. Seward

Secretary of State (1861-1869)

Annexations and Purchases


Midway (1867)“Seward’s Folly” (1867)$7.2 millionLasting InfluenceKept England & France out of Civil WarInvoked Monroe Doctrine against Napoleon III in MexicoInspired trade treaty w/Hawaii (1875)Slide6

The “New” Imperialism

International Darwinism


“White Man’s Burden”

MissionariesJosiah StrongPoliticiansHenry Cabot LodgeNaval PowerThe Influence of Sea Power Upon History (Alfred T. Mahan, 1890)Impact of Asst. Sec. of Navy (Roosevelt)

Popular Press

Sensationalist journalismSlide7

Latin America

Blaine and the Pan-American Conference (1889)

Hemispheric cooperation

Tariff/trade policies

Cleveland, Olney, and the Monroe DoctrineChileAttack @ ValparaisoBrazilTroops end rebellionVenezuela (1895)Dispute w/British GuianaOlney Declaration

Led to US-British alliance

Spain in CubaSlide8

The Spanish-American War

Causes of War


Desire to become world power

Cuban Revolt“The Butcher” WeylerYellow JournalismPulitzer vs. HearstEvangelina CisnerosThe




USS MaineSlide9

McKinley’s Messages

Attempts at Peace/Ultimatum to Spain:



Maineend reconcentration camps.




independent Cuba

Spain accepts all except last stipulation

McKinley Goes to Congress“Put an end to the barbarities, bloodshed, starvation, and horrible miseries: in CubaProtect the lives and property of U.S. citizens living in CubaEnd “the very serious injury to the commerce, trade, and business of our people”End “the constant menace to our peace” arising from disorder in CubaResponse: The Teller AmendmentSelf-determination for CubaSlide10

A “Splendid Little War”

The Philippines (May 1-August 13, 1898)

Long to Dewey to Gridley

“fire when you are ready”

Spanish fleet destroyedManila capturedInvasion of CubaThe Rough Riders on San Juan HillRemainder of Spanish fleet destroyed @ Santiago Bay (July 3)Slide11

Results of the War

Treaty of Paris, 1898

Recognition of Cuban independence

U.S. acquisition of Puerto Rico and Guam

U.S. acquisition of the Philippines for $20 millionThe Philippine QuestionAguinaldo and the Independence MovementWar w/U.S. (1899-1902)Over 200,000 Filipinos killed

Independence not granted until 1946 (!)Slide12

Impact of the War

Insular Cases (1901-1904)

Question before the Court:

“Does the Constitution follow the flag?”

CubaPlatt AmendmentNo foreign agreementsAllow for US interventionAllow US naval bases (Guantanamo)Annexation of Hawaii

Sanford P. Dole & Liliuokalani (1893)

Cleveland against annexation

McKinley & Congress annex (1898)

Puerto Rico

Foraker Act (1900)

Election of 1900McKinley vs. BryanRecognition of U.S. PowerEnsuing debate over roleSlide13

Open Door Policy in China

History of Europeans in China:

Opium Wars

Spheres of Influence

John Hay’s “Open Door” (1899)Boxer Rebellion (1900)Cause: increased xenophobia and desire to remove outsidersImpact: further weakening of imperial regimeOpen Door Notes (1900)Preserve China’s territorial integrity

Safeguard “equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese empire.”Slide14

“Speak softly and carry a big stick.”

McKinley’s Assassination (1901)

TR becomes youngest President in history

The Panama Canal

RevolutionHay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1903)Building the CanalEstablishment of Canal ZoneThe Roosevelt Corollary (1904)Result of British involvement in VenezuelaThe “Great White Fleet”Expansion of Navy & World TourSlide15

Image Analysis -- CCOT

What impact did the Roosevelt Corollary have on the Monroe Doctrine and the United States’ role in world affairs?

The cartoon title is “The World’s Constable,” what is meant by this?

Explain ways in which the message of this cartoon is still true today.Slide16

Imperialism & Peace in East Asia

Russo-Japanese War (1904)

Treaty of Portsmouth (1905)

Manchurian negotiations

“Gentlemen’s Agreement” (1908)Restrict Japanese immigrationRoot-Takahira Agreement (1908)Mutual respect and support for Open Door policySlide17

William H. Taft’s Foreign Policy

Dollar Diplomacy

Investments would lead to greater stability

Railroads in China (1911)

Issues w/ManchuriaNicaraguaMarines sent to quell civil war (1912)The Lodge Corollary (1912)Added non-European nations (Asia) to Monroe DoctrineTaft opposedSlide18

Woodrow Wilson and Foreign Affairs

Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy

Spread democracy

Sec. of State: WJB

The PhilippinesJones Act (1916)Full territorial statusBill of rights & universal male suffrageIndependence w/arrival of stable gov’t

Puerto Rico



Act (1917


Panama CanalRepealed US toll exemptionConciliation TreatiesInterventionMexicoTampico Incident (1914)Huerta vs. Carranza & VillaU.S. Expeditionary Force (Pershing)Slide19

Image Analysis:

Synthesis & CCOT