Imperialism Q’s and Answers

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Check your work!. Definition. Imperialism: . --one country takes control of another. --empire-building. Motivations. Economic. --Natural Resources. --Naval bases. --Raw Materials. --New markets for industrial products. ID: 711754 Download Presentation

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Imperialism Q’s and Answers




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Slide1

Imperialism Q’s and Answers

Check your work!

Slide2

Definition

Imperialism:

--one country takes control of another

--empire-building

Slide3

Motivations

Economic

--Natural Resources

--Naval bases

--Raw Materials

--New markets for industrial products--Overpopulation—more jobs available in colonies

Cultural

--Source of troops for bigger armies

--Spread of western civilization: Social Darwinism, “White Man’s Burden”

--Spread of Christianity

--Medical help, education

Slide4

The White Man’s Burden

http://www.antiimperialist.com/webroot/PEOPLEdocuments/Membership/Pictures/WhiteMansBurden.jpg

http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/88.4/images/kramer_f5.jpg

Slide5

Scramble for Africa: European Advantages

Technology:

Maxim gun—automatic machine gun

Steam engine—for travel into African interior

Telegraph

Medical Advances:Quinine—to control malaria

Slide6

Scramble for Africa: Vulnerable to Conquest

Huge variety of languages and cultures

Wars between ethnic groups over land, water, and trade rights

Slide7

Forms of Imperialism

Colonies—Governed by mother country— India, Rhodesia, French Indochina

Protectorate—maintains local government, which must answer to imperialist nation—

Niger River Delta

Spheres of Influence—not governed by imperialists, but identified as trading center for different imperialist nations so they can avoid competition with each other--China

Slide8

Economic Imperialism:

Used primarily by US, for example in Latin America:

1. Paid workers w/ vouchers to be used only at company stores, forced workers into debt w/ high prices; debt passed to next generation

2. Land distributed unequally—only wealthy landowners had property

3. Supported military leaders who gained fame/power during struggles for independence and controlled new nations as military dictators (caudillos)

Slide9

U.S. Economic Imperialism: Foreign Trade

4. Latin American exports grew with steamship and railroads and refrigeration

5. Foreign countries lent money to Latin American governments for building facilities for export industries; when they couldn’t pay back loans, the foreign countries took over the facilities and industries

6. Latin American countries didn’t invest in infrastructure or fund programs for self-sufficiency; US took advantage

Slide10

Imperialism Case Study: Benefits to colonized people

Reduced local warfare

Improved sanitation

Improved hospitals and schools

--increased life spans

--increased literacy rates• Economic expansion

• Constructed railroads, dams, telephone and telegraph lines

Slide11

Imperialism Case Study: Negative Consequences

Colonized people lost control of land and independence

New diseases (smallpox)

Deaths from war, resistance, famine

Loss of culture

Artificial boundaries without regard to ethnic rivalries or allegiances led to longlasting political problems

Slide12

Scramble for Africa: Berlin Conference

By 1914, Europeans controlled the entire African continent except for Liberia (protected by the U.S.) and Ethiopia

Cash crops replaced food crops grown by farmers to feed their families

Slide13

Scramble for Africa: South Africa

Three groups that clashed over land and resources in

Cape Colony

Zulus—led in early 19

th

c. by Shaka ZuluBritish

Boers (Dutch)—also called

Afrikaaners

Slide14

Scramble for Africa: Boer War

Outcomes of Boer War

Britain won the war

Union of South Africa was created, controlled by the British

Key

word: apartheid

Slide15

Cecil Rhodes--Rhodesia

British imperialist who envisioned a British Africa “from Cape to Cairo”

Rhodesia became Zimbabwe 1979

Violent conflict over returning gov’t to majority black rule and redistributing property owned by white landowners since time of British control

Slide16

Leopold II

Belgian King

Personal owner of Congo

Terrible abuses of Congolese

Natural Resource: Rubber

William Sheppard

Slide17

William Sheppard

Slide18

William Sheppard

Slide19

Slide20

Imperialism: Ethiopia

Successfully resisted European imperialism when King Menelik II

--played British, French and Italians against each other

--built up arsenal of modern weapons

--defeated Italians in Battle of Adowa

--modernized Ethiopia

Slide21

Imperialism Case Study: Algeria

Algerians waged active military resistance against the French (lasted for 50 years)

French ultimately controlled

ENCLAVES in

much

of North and West Africa

Slide22

Imperialism: Algeria

French Maintained Direct Control

--paternalism—treating indigenous people like parents treat children

--assimilation—based on the idea that indigenous people would adopt European culture and become like the Europeans

Slide23

China

British established Opium

trade,

leading to widespread addiction, and refused to end this drug trade

Opium War

—1840s

China

suffered

humiliating defeat—forced

to sign

Treaty

of Nanjing

Britain got Hong Kong

Treaty Ports

established

Slide24

China

Taiping Rebellion

and other resistance caused internal pressure on Qing government

Qing government tried to update education system, diplomatic service and military with mixed results

Foreign nations gained increasing control over China’s economy; they established

spheres of influence

U.S.

worried

that it will be shut out if European nations establish formal

colonies—urges

open door policy

to open trade between China and all foreign traders

Outcome:

Policy

protected U.S. trade rights in China and protected China from colonization

Outcome

: China

still under control of foreign powers

Slide25

Boxer Rebellion

Chinese nationalists violently attacked foreigners and any Chinese who supported foreign trade or missionaries within China

Slide26

Boxer Rebellion

Cause

Growing frustration with Chinese loss of power to European powers

Qing Dynasty (Dowager Empress) refuses to allow reform

Peasants resented privileges granted to foreigners

Resented Chinese Christians

Effect

International force of 19,000 troops marched on Beijing and defeated the Boxers

Strong sense of nationalism emerged in China

Dowager empress slowly began reforms

Five decades of unrest

Slide27

Modernization in Japan

American motive—to convince Japanese to open their ports to trade

U.S. benefits—U.S. could use two ports

Meiji

Restoration

— --a. studied western gov’t and culture;

--b. adopted best aspects of western civilization;

--c. modernized the military;

--d. universal public education;

--e. industrialization

Slide28

Modernization in Japan

Korea—Both Japan and China wanted trade and military posts in Korea

Sino-Japanese War—China sent troops to help Korea’s king put down a rebellion, violating its treaty with Japan

S-J War Consequences—Japan drove Chinese out of Korea, destroyed Chinese navy, gained territory in Manchuria; Japan gained first colonies

Slide29

Russo-Japanese War

Causes of Russo-Japanese War--Russia refused to stay out of Korea, Japan refused to recognize Russian rights in Manchuria;

Japan

attacked

Russia

Slide30

Russo-Japanese War Consequences

Japan

forced Russia out of Korea, captured Russia’s Pacific fleet, destroyed Russia’s Baltic fleet

First Asian nation to defeat a European nation in War

Ruling Korea—Harsh rulers: shut down Korean newspapers, took over schools, took land, prohibited Koreans business

Slide31

British Imperialism in India:

How did they gain/maintain control?

Mughal Empire collapses

; British

East India Co. gains control of India

British establish a railroad network in India to transport raw materials and manufactured goods;

India becomes increasingly valuable to British

British force emphasis on cash

crops; cause famine;

villagers no longer self-sufficient

Sepoy

Mutiny occurs and uprisings spread over much of northern

India;

British gov’t took direct control of India

Slide32

British Imperialism in India: Outcomes

Effects

Nationalism grew in India, along with calls for modernization and westernization

Indians

form Indian National Congress, which calls for

self-government

British partition Bengal into Hindu and Muslim sections;

Indians find it more difficult to gain independence because they were divided

Slide33

Imperialism: Cuba and Latin America

Who were the Imperialists?

Originally Spain, then the U.S.

How did the US gain/maintain control?

Economic Imperialism

▪US

Businesses established holdings in

Cuba

1898

Spanish-American War

: When Cubans fought Spanish for independence, US supported their fight (probably more self-interested than concerned for oppressed Cubans)

Slide34

Imperialism: Cuba and Latin America

Spanish-American War—

1898-1900

U.S. installed military government in Cuba and exerted control over Cuban affairs; Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines became U.S.

territories

Outcomes

U.S

. feared that European powers would try to re-conquer Latin American

countries—issued

Roosevelt Corollary

to

Monroe Doctrine

The

U.S. built the

Panama

Canal.

Slide35

Santa Anna—1821 fought

for independence from Spain and

in 1829 fought

to keep Spain from retaking

control;

Became Mexico’s president four times (1833-1855); Lost Texas and California to the U.S. in Mexican-American War (1845-48); Exiled—returned

to Mexico poor, blind, powerless,

forgotten (1874)

Turmoil and Change in Mexico

Slide36

Turmoil and Change in Mexico

Benito Juarez—poor

Zapotec

Indian, gained education, law degree;

Started liberal reform movement,

La Reforma (1840s-50s); Became president 1861-72;

Legacy of peace, progress and reform

Slide37

Turmoil and Change in Mexico

Porfirio

Diaz—noted military general;

Took

control of Mexico in military coup 1876-1911;

Offered land, power, and favors to supporters and terrorized opponents;Elections became meaningless; rich got richer and the poor got poorer.

Slide38

Francisco Madero—ran for president, arrested by Diaz

;

Called

for Revolution;

Won

election after Diaz stepped down 1911-1913Replaced by military leader Victoriano Huerta, who likely was responsible for Madero’s assassination

Turmoil and Change in Mexico: Mexican Revolution

Slide39

Turmoil and Change in Mexico: Mexican Revolution

Emiliano

Zapata—led army in southern Mexico; called for reform, “Land and Liberty”

Pancho

Villa —

led army in northern Mexico; “Robin Hood

” —

stole from rich to give

to

poor

Overthrew Huerta to put

Venustiano

Carranza in power.

Slide40

Venustiano

Carranza—overthrew

Huerta’s

government,

Turned

his army on Villa and Zapata (his former allies);

Began

revising Mexico’s

constitution

Civil

War ended with more than 1 million Mexican people dead.

Turmoil and Change in Mexico: Mexican Revolution

Slide41


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