American Imperialism (1877-1917)
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American Imperialism (1877-1917)

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American Imperialism (1877-1917)

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American Imperialism (1877-1917)

Becoming a World Power


Questioning the Causes

Why would the United States choose to enter the competition for foreign lands and markets?George Washington’s Warning“entangling alliances”Early Departures:Monroe DoctrinePerry in Japan (1853)Causes of US Imperialism:EconomicIndustrialization, Competition, Need for MarketsDesire for world power?


Essential Question

To what extent was the late nineteenth-century and early twentieth century United States expansionism a continuation of past United States expansionism and to what extent was it a departure?


For Imperialism

Economic GrowthMarketsInvestments (banana republics)Promote SecurityExpand Navy - Naval Advisory Board 1881Preserve American SpiritHenry Cabot Lodge, Theodore RooseveltSocial Darwinism


Imperialism: Pros & Cons

Economic Expansion

 Regional Tension  War

Building Navy = European Model  War

US should not

be potential leaders of oppressed foreign peoples

Parallel to treatment of American Indians


William Jennings Bryan

Anti-Imperialist League (1898)


William H. Seward

Secretary of State (1861-1869)Annexations and PurchasesNicaraguaMidway (1867)“Seward’s Folly” (1867)$7.2 millionLasting InfluenceKept England & France out of Civil WarInvoked Monroe Doctrine against Napoleon III in MexicoInspired trade treaty w/Hawaii (1875)


The “New” Imperialism

International DarwinismImperialism“White Man’s Burden”MissionariesJosiah StrongPoliticiansHenry Cabot LodgeNaval PowerThe Influence of Sea Power Upon History (Alfred T. Mahan, 1890)Impact of Asst. Sec. of Navy (Roosevelt)Popular PressSensationalist journalism


Latin America

Blaine and the Pan-American Conference (1889)Hemispheric cooperationTariff/trade policiesCleveland, Olney, and the Monroe DoctrineChileAttack @ ValparaisoBrazilTroops end rebellionVenezuela (1895)Dispute w/British GuianaOlney DeclarationLed to US-British allianceSpain in Cuba


The Spanish-American War

Causes of WarJingoismDesire to become world powerCuban Revolt“The Butcher” WeylerYellow JournalismPulitzer vs. HearstEvangelina CisnerosThe DeLôme LetterThe USS Maine


McKinley’s Messages

Attempts at Peace/Ultimatum to Spain:compensation for Maineend reconcentration camps. truce in Cubaindependent CubaSpain accepts all except last stipulationMcKinley Goes to Congress“Put an end to the barbarities, bloodshed, starvation, and horrible miseries: in CubaProtect the lives and property of U.S. citizens living in CubaEnd “the very serious injury to the commerce, trade, and business of our people”End “the constant menace to our peace” arising from disorder in CubaResponse: The Teller AmendmentSelf-determination for Cuba


A “Splendid Little War”

The Philippines (May 1-August 13, 1898)Long to Dewey to Gridley“fire when you are ready”Spanish fleet destroyedManila capturedInvasion of CubaThe Rough Riders on San Juan HillRemainder of Spanish fleet destroyed @ Santiago Bay (July 3)


Results of the War

Treaty of Paris, 1898Recognition of Cuban independenceU.S. acquisition of Puerto Rico and GuamU.S. acquisition of the Philippines for $20 millionThe Philippine QuestionAguinaldo and the Independence MovementWar w/U.S. (1899-1902)Over 200,000 Filipinos killedIndependence not granted until 1946 (!)


Impact of the War

Insular Cases (1901-1904)Question before the Court:“Does the Constitution follow the flag?”CubaPlatt AmendmentNo foreign agreementsAllow for US interventionAllow US naval bases (Guantanamo)Annexation of HawaiiSanford P. Dole & Liliuokalani (1893)Cleveland against annexationMcKinley & Congress annex (1898)Puerto RicoForaker Act (1900)Election of 1900McKinley vs. BryanRecognition of U.S. PowerEnsuing debate over role


Open Door Policy in China

History of Europeans in China:Opium WarsSpheres of InfluenceJohn Hay’s “Open Door” (1899)Boxer Rebellion (1900)Cause: increased xenophobia and desire to remove outsidersImpact: further weakening of imperial regimeOpen Door Notes (1900)Preserve China’s territorial integritySafeguard “equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese empire.”


“Speak softly and carry a big stick.”

McKinley’s Assassination (1901)TR becomes youngest President in historyThe Panama CanalRevolutionHay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1903)Building the CanalEstablishment of Canal ZoneThe Roosevelt Corollary (1904)Result of British involvement in VenezuelaThe “Great White Fleet”Expansion of Navy & World Tour


Image Analysis -- CCOT

What impact did the Roosevelt Corollary have on the Monroe Doctrine and the United States’ role in world affairs?The cartoon title is “The World’s Constable,” what is meant by this?Explain ways in which the message of this cartoon is still true today.


Imperialism & Peace in East Asia

Russo-Japanese War (1904)Treaty of Portsmouth (1905)Manchurian negotiations“Gentlemen’s Agreement” (1908)Restrict Japanese immigrationRoot-Takahira Agreement (1908)Mutual respect and support for Open Door policy


William H. Taft’s Foreign Policy

Dollar DiplomacyInvestments would lead to greater stabilityRailroads in China (1911)Issues w/ManchuriaNicaraguaMarines sent to quell civil war (1912)The Lodge Corollary (1912)Added non-European nations (Asia) to Monroe DoctrineTaft opposed


Woodrow Wilson and Foreign Affairs

Wilson’s Moral DiplomacySpread democracySec. of State: WJBThe PhilippinesJones Act (1916)Full territorial statusBill of rights & universal male suffrageIndependence w/arrival of stable gov’tPuerto RicoJones-Shafroth Act (1917)Panama CanalRepealed US toll exemptionConciliation TreatiesInterventionMexicoTampico Incident (1914)Huerta vs. Carranza & VillaU.S. Expeditionary Force (Pershing)


Image Analysis: Synthesis & CCOT