Imperialism, Progressivism,

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Reform. America redefines itself in the 20. th. Century. Imperialism. THEMES. Causes of U.S. Imperialism. The Spanish-American War. Pre-American Imperialism in Asia. American Imperialist Foreign Policy. ID: 660336 Download Presentation

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Imperialism, Progressivism,

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Presentations text content in Imperialism, Progressivism,


Imperialism, Progressivism,Reform

America redefines itself in the 20






Causes of U.S. Imperialism

The Spanish-American War

Pre-American Imperialism in Asia

American Imperialist Foreign Policy



Acquiring territory or gaining control over the political and economic life of other countries.

How is this different than Colonizing?

Was the United States born from the imperial desire of Great Britain?


1: Causes of American Imperialism


Why did the U.S. become an imperialist nation in the early 20th Century?

Imperialist Motivations

New Manifest Destiny

International Darwinism

White Man’s Burden

Economic Pressures


1: Causes of American Imperialism


Imperialist Motivations


Manifest Destiny did not die with the conquest of the West

Expanding was a part of the American psyche…they needed somewhere to go

With no where else to go American’s looked over seas

Jingoism—extreme nationalism—”my country can do no wrong”


1: Causes of American Imperialism


Imperialist Motivations

International Darwinism

If the U.S. doesn’t control the world…who will?

Survival of the fittest…to survive we must expand and assert our influence

The only way to assert influence is with a strong navy to…

transport Americans to other places,

protect trade,

open markets

U.S. Navy Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan wrote

The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890

) which pushed for a strong navy of steel ships


“The history of sea power is largely, though by no means solely, a narrative of contests between nations, of mutual rivalries, of violence frequently culminating in war. The profound influence of sea commerce upon the wealth and strength of countries was clearly seen long before the true principles which governed its growth and prosperity were detected. To secure to one's own people a disproportionate share of such benefits, every effort was made to exclude others, either by the peaceful legislative methods of monopoly or prohibitory regulations, or, when these failed, by direct violence. The clash of interests, the angry feelings roused by conflicting attempts thus to appropriate the larger share, if not the whole, of the advantages of commerce, and of distant unsettled commercial regions, led to wars. On the other hand, wars arising from other causes have been greatly modified in their conduct and issue by the control of the sea. Therefore the history of sea power, while embracing in its broad sweep all that tends to make a people great upon the sea or by the sea, is largely a military history...” 


Alfred Thayer Mahan

The Influence Of Sea Power Upon History, 1660 - 1783


1: Causes of American Imperialism


Imperialist Motivations


Christian Missionaries

and other

chartable groups supported Imperialism because they felt it was the “White Man’s Burden” to bring Western culture to other nations.


Imperialist Motivations


Rapidly expanding industry required both raw materials AND new markets to sell their goods

Imperialism solved both problems

Republicans (Congress and the President) were generally supporters of industry who favored imperialism foreign policy

“Today we are raising more than we can consume. Today we are making more than we can use. Therefore, we must find new markets for our produce, new occupations for our capital, new work for our labor.”


Senator Albert Beveridge, 1899, to a joint session of Congress


1: Causes of American Imperialism


American Imperialism At Home


Williams H. Seward (Lincoln’s right hand man and Secretary of State from 1861-1869) was an ardent expansionist

When Russia offered to sell Alaska to Seward for $7.2 million in 1867 Seward convinced Congress to agree (They liked Russia because they supported the Union during the Civil War)

Many American’s thought buying Alaska was silly, calling the acquisition of a barren wasteland “Seward’s Folly”

I can see Russia from my house!


American Imperialism At Home


Since the mid 1800’s American’s industrialists and plantation owners had wanted Hawaii for it’s unique natural resources and tropical growing environment

In 1893 American settlers helped to overthrow the Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani

Who was their leader?

President Cleveland opposed imperialism and blocked efforts to annex Hawaii.

The war in the Philippines pushed President McKinley to annex the Island in 1898 for its Naval baseHawaii becomes a territory of the US in 1900, and a state in 1959.

Fruit Cup





Imperialism: Continuity and Change Over Time Question

Why did America move towards an Imperialist foreign policy at the end of the 19


and beginning of the 20




1: Causes of American Imperialism


The Monroe Doctrine before the War

The Pan-American Conference (1889)

Secretary of State James J. Blaine organized a permanent organization for international trade and cooperation in the Western Hemisphere

Lowered tariff rates to encourage trade within the hemisphere

Europe didn’t like this because it made trading with them more expensive and increased U.S. power in Latin America

Still exists today


2: The Spanish-American War


American Interest in Cuba

Southern American sugar farmers were interested in Cuba

Cuban Nationalists were unhappy with the colonial rule of the Spanish.

They burned sugar plantations to push the Spanish out and get the Americans involved

Spanish sent General

Valeriano Weyler to Cuba with 100,000 troops.

Cubans put into prison camps where more than 20,000 Cubans died


2: The Spanish-American War



Yellow Journalism

To sell newspapers publishers like William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer started a practice called Yellow Journalism where stories were exaggerated or even falsified to make them more interesting and “sellable”

Stories about the “evil” Spanish filled the papers and pushed many Americans to wanting war with Spain.


2: The Spanish-American War


The De Lome


In 1898 while Yellow Journalism was fanning the flames of American involvement in Cuba, letter from Spanish Diplomat



Lome was leaked to the press.De Lome’s

letter criticized President McKinley… American’s didn’t like that and pushed further for War.


2: The Spanish-American War


The Sinking of the USS Maine

February 15, 1898 the US battleship Maine suddenly exploded killing 260 sailors while anchored in the Cuban capitol of Havana

The Yellow Press accused the Spanish of sabotaging and blowing up the ship

People believed this despite experts testifying it was an engine failure


2: The Spanish-American War


McKinley Declares War

McKinley issued an ultimatum to Spain…they agreed to end the prison camps and stop fighting the Cuban Nationals but remained on the island

This was not enough… McKinley asked Congress for a declaration of war.

He got it

Do McKinley’s reasons echo any 20


and 21st

Century Presidents’ reasons for war?

McKinley’s Reason’s for War

“Put an end to the barbarities, bloodshed, starvation, and


orrible miseries”

Protect the lives and property of US citizens in Cuba

End the “very serious injury to the commerce, trade, and business of our people”

End the “constant menace to our peace”


2: The Spanish-American War


The Teller Amendment

Passed on April 20


the Amendment openly declared war on Spain

It promised that at the conclusion of the war the Nation of Cuba would be entirely in the control of the Cuban people?

Does this promise remind you of any promises made by 20th and 21

st Century presidents?


2: The Spanish-American War


Current U.S. Military Deployment

There are currently 196 Countries in the world today

American Troops are stationed in 152 of them

1,318,428 U.S. Soldiers total

1,145,073 Stationed in the U.S.

173,325 Stationed overseasWhich Country has the most U.S. troops stationed there?

Japan 47,123

Which country has the second most U.S. troops?

Germany 37,703


Current McDonalds Deployment

There are currently 34,000 McDonalds in the world


196 Countries in the world today

There are McDonalds in 113 of them

Why are we talking about McDonalds?


Imperialism: Causation Question

What brought the United States to War with Spain in 1898?


2: The Spanish-American War


The Spanish-American War in the Philippines

After McKinley declared war, Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt

sent Commodore George Dewey to the Philippines to keep the Spanish Navy contained (the Philippines


also under the control of the

Spanish)Meanwhile back in the Philippines, Dewey opened fire on the Spanish navy, defeating them in a matter of days.U.S. troops landed on the island and captured the capitol city of Manila after a few weeks of fighting.


2: The Spanish-American War


The Spanish-American War in Cuba

American forces landed and met with light resistance from the Spanish.

Disease proved a more formidable enemy. 5,000 soldiers died from malaria while only 500 died in battle.



resigned from the Navy and took a position as the commander of a volunteer force of cavalry called “The Rough Riders” who became heroes of the American victory.

The Spanish asked for peace after only 3 months of fighting


2: The Spanish-American War


The Peace Process

The Spanish and Americans met in Paris to negotiations peace in December of 1898

The Treaty was controversial because while granted Cuban independence from imperial rule it

Gave control of Guam and Puerto Rico to the U.S.

And sold the Philippines to the US for $20 million


2: The Spanish-American War


IMPERIALSIM: Synthesis Question

How does Imperialism compare to the foreign policy philosophies of


and the

Monroe Doctrine




: Pre-American Imperialism in Asia


Imperialism: Periodization Question

Why is the Presidency of Teddy Roosevelt considered the beginning American Imperialism?



: American Imperialist Foreign Policy


Wednesday’s In-Class Assignment


Get into groups of 3, pick up a packet for each of your group members, and an iPad or two

Once in groups I will come around and tell you which subject you will cover

Create a quick , simple and to the point PowerPoint of your subject that:

Explains all the major events, ideas, and terms of your subject

Relates your subject to the broader discussion of imperialism

Include pictures or maps to make your slides come alive!


Controversy Over the Treaty of Peace

Other Results of the War

Open Door Policy with China

The Panama Canal

The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

East Asia

William Howard Taft and Dollar Diplomacy

Woodrow Wilson and Foreign Affairs

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