Composting PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

Composting PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

2015-11-11 135K 135 0 0

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Adapted from presentation of Terra Luke, 2013. Objectives. Composting introduction. Backyard composting. Community . composting. Commercial/Municipal composting. Advantages & Disadvantages. www.scgh.com. ID: 190226

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Presentations text content in Composting

Slide1

Composting

Adapted from presentation of Terra Luke, 2013

Slide2

Objectives

Composting introductionBackyard compostingCommunity compostingCommercial/Municipal compostingAdvantages & Disadvantages

www.scgh.com

Slide3

What is Compost?

Decayed organic material Used to condition soil & add nutrientsSlow release weak fertilizer

howtocompost.org

Waysofthewildinstitute.com

Slide4

Composting Methods

AnaerobicAerobicMicrobesWorms (Vermicomposting)Yard WasteFood WasteWastewater Sludge Municipal Solid Waste BackyardCommunityCommercial/Municipal

Slide5

Anaerobic

Organic MaterialWater40% to 75% (solid)80% to 99% (liquid)Absence of OxygenNaturally occurring MicrobesFermentationByproduct: Compost, CH4, …

theveggielady.com

Slide6

Aerobic

Organic MaterialMoistureOxygenNaturally occurring Microbes or WormsBulking agentRespiration Organics + O2 + Nutrients + Microbes  More Microbes + Stable Organics + Heat + CO2 + H2O + NH3 + SO4 +…

www.uaex.edu

Slide7

Microbes

sabacooperative.org

Slide8

Vermicomposting

Source :

mgsenvironment.blogspot.com

Slide9

Vermicomposting

Slide10

Yard Waste

LeavesGrassBrushFlowering PlantsGarden Waste

ww1.hdnux.com

Slide11

Food Waste

switchboard.nrdc.org

assets.inhabitat.com

Slide12

futureofschaumburg.files.wordpress.com

Slide13

Wastewater Sludge

Slide14

Municipal Solid Waste Composting

L

ess common than Yard or Food Waste composting

S

ource separation or post-collection processing to remove contaminants & break bags

Final product often contaminated

More processing to create marketable product, or

Use as landfill cover

Slide15

Slide16

Design Considerations (Aerobic)

Parameter

Values

Comments

Particle size

Smaller

more s

urface area

Too small

 limits O

2

transfer

Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio

(C/N)

Low

 NH

3

High  Nitrogen limitation

Moisture content

Too little slows microbes

Too much leads to anaerobic conditions

Mixing / Turning

If that is how oxygen is introduced

Temperature

Beyond 151

F

, microbes are harmed

Pathogen control

For extended time (or higher for less time)

(Sewage sludge: >

131

F

15 days & 5 turns)

Land requirement

Per 50 ton/d

pH

Is optimal, >8.5 &

ammonia is produced

Bulking agent

Needed for wet or fine materials to create void space

Stabilization

Drop in temperature, self heating capacity, oxygen uptake,

Chaetomium

gracilis

growth,

or

starch-iodine test

Slide17

Size

www.biocycle.net

Tub Grinder

Slide18

Carbon to Nitrogen

30:1Carbon sourceNitrogen source

cwmi.css.cornell.edu/compostingathome.pdf

Slide19

Green & Brown Balance

Online Calculatorwww.klickitatcounty.org/solidwaste/fileshtml/organics/compostCalc.htm

Source: Cornell Waste Management Institute. Composting at Home

Slide20

Example

Ideal C:N is 30:1

25-30 is good

20-40 is

decent

C:N = % carbon / % nitrogen

Fruit

waste:

44.52 % C

& 1.4

% N

Loose

dry

leaves: 42.22 % C & 0.9 % N

 

Slide21

Example (Cont.)

What can be added to loose leaves to bring the material closer to 30:1? Newsprint C:N= 54:1? Fruit Waste C:N= 32:1? Vegetable Waste C:N= 11:1?

Source: http://

www.klickitatcounty.org/solidwaste/fileshtml/organics/compostCalc.htm

Slide22

Temperature

Pile size

TurningBlowing Air

casellaorganics.com

Slide23

WATER

MicrobesPropagationMetabolizingMovementOxygen Transfer

W

hen squeezed hard moisture should be visible but not run out of hand. @ 50 to 60 % moisture content, compost will hold form when squeezed & resist crumbling

www.depi.vic.gov.au

Slide24

Backyard composting

University of Minnesota

extension

service

www.mnn.com

Best to “let grass lie”, but can be Nitrogen source

Slide25

Community Composting

ApartmentsNeighborhoodsCommunity Wide

Slide26

New York City – Starting a CCC

Develop relationship with local NYC Compost Project

Eventually host compost workdays & tours Designate a compost contactWith NYC Compost Project Answer basic questions about site Have actively managed compost system One or more persons addressing problems & finishing compostGuidance (www.nyc.gov/html/nycwasteless/html/...)Outdoor - compost/edu_outdoor.shtmlIndoor - compost/edu_indoor.shtmlLow price bins

www.nyc.gov

Slide27

Slide28

Source: http://www.phillycompost.com/Map.html

Philadelphia

Shared community

sites: purple

Contact Site Host to join

Private sites: red

Check with site

contact before

visiting

Shared sites at capacity go “private”

Yellow

sites are

people looking for a shared site

Commercial sites: green

City sites: blue

Slide29

Commercial/Municipal Composting

CommercialBusinesses, communitiesMunicipalYard Waste, Landscapers

Source:

montgomerycountymd.gov

Slide30

Wilmington Organic Recycling Center, DE

160,000 ton/yr of source separated organic waste converted to useful compostReduces greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to 8,800 automobiles from area roads per yearDiverts 120,000 ton/yr from landfillLowers disposal costs 20-50% compared to surrounding landfills

peninsula-compost.com

www.reuters.com

Slide31

Community Composting & Epiphergy

Community Composting, Rochester NYWeekly Pickup of Fruit & vegetable scrapsMeat, shellfish, fish productsPasta, bread, cerealDairy products, egg shellsCoffee grounds, filters & tea bagsPaper towels & rollsMuffin wrappersPaper platesPet foodHousehold plants

EpiphergyUpcycles organic waste materials Produces biofuels, animal feed, & compostfeed w/ ~100% digestibilityEthanol & Biodiesel

www.communitycomposting.org

mediad.publicbroadcasting.net

www.epiphergy.com

Graham A.

Fennie

- Founder &

CEO

Epiphergy

Slide32

Collection

Slide33

Tipping Area, Tub Shredder

www.menv.com

Slide34

www.enrich.ie

Windrows

Slide35

Technologies used

Slide36

www.enrich.ie

Slide37

codywitt.files.wordpress.com

Operation

www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Q6Fl34mWGw&NR=1&feature=endscreen

Slide38

Static Pile

www.howardcountymd.gov

Slide39

Static Pile

dirthuggercompost.files.wordpress.com

Dirt

Hugger

The

Dalles

Oregon

Slide40

In Vessel

Better operational control

Better odor controlLower labor costsSmaller footprintFaster

Higher capital costsHigher operating & maintenance costs

www.ohio.edu

Slide41

In Vessel - Rotating

Rocket Composter. Rotation turns and moves material.Cooked & Uncooked Fruit, Vegetables, Meat & FishCooked & Uncooked Garden WasteAnimal Waste (including some types of bedding)Specifications: Up to:Length 7.0mWidth 1.4mHeight 1.8mCapacity 3500 l/wkMotor 1.5kWhHeater 2 x 1kWhThermostatically controlledPower 30kWh/wk

dumbartonroad.files.wordpress.com

www.tidyplanet.co.uk/our-products/the-rocket/

Slide42

Montclair University

Turning French Toast To Compost

May

5, 2009 by Jessica

Kitchin

New Jersey Monthly

Slide43

In Vessel - Stationary

SV Composter™ (Engineered Compost Systems)Static Pile

Slide44

Composting Time

Windrow & Backyard In Vessel Curing can take up to 4 more weeksCompost stabilizes w/further turning or air input

gwri.calpoly.edu

In-Vessel

Bays

(

Mechanical Agitation)

Slide45

Trommel

Screen

www.columbiapa.net

Slide46

Advantages

Natural fertilizer

Better soilBackyard/ on-site compostingLess waste going to landfills ~25%More efficient nutrient recyclingMarketable commodity

epa.gov

Slide47

Disadvantages

Odors

Can control w/ static pile or in-vessel

R

espiratory & health issues at commercial scale

Backyard

Up front costs

Effort


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