The Aftermath of the War of 1859

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The Aftermath of the War of 1859

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The Aftermath of the War of 1859

Cavour and the Unification of Italy


The Resignation of Cavour

*Napoleon was fearful of how well Piedmont was doing out of the warned yet could not ask for Nice and Savoy since he did not live up to the Plombieres agreement

Cavour felt let down- Austria still held Venetia, theoretically ruled Parma, Modena and Tuscany, was not consulted about the end of the war

Apparently he LOST it on Victor Emmanuel and resigned as PM


An Expanded Piedmont

After his resignation, events occurred that bore the fruit of his labours as PM

- Tuscan voted to be annexed by Piedmont

- Parma voted to be annexed to Piedmont

- Modena voted to be annexed to Piedmont

- The armistice of Villafranca became a Peace Conference- Lombardy was handed to the French, to be handed to Piedmont



An Expanded Piedmont

January 1860 Cavour returns as PM- Tuscany and Emilia (the name of the union of Parma, Modena and part of the Papal States) declared their inclusion into the Kingdom of Piedmont...sort of- Piedmont supported governments- Leopold II is ousted

Cavour decided to arrange for *Nice and Savoy to be handed over to Napoleon III (keep him happy)

The Kingdom of Northern Italy is proclaimed! or is it just a larger Piedmont?

*now it is time for Garibaldi to really make his mark- he was born in Nice...



Cavour and Garibaldi

Their motives and relations are hard for historians to discuss- no autobiography by Cavour, only edited letters and Garibaldi wrote an autobiography only up to 1850

Both born in Piedmont, both leading figures of Unification

Cavour- Noble, well educated, intelligent, cool, calm and collected, committed to the possibility of Unification

Garibaldi- commoner, ill educated, rough, soldier, charismatic leader of men, romantic, obsessed with the Unification of Italy (republic or monarchy?)


Cavour's Tactics

"Italia fara da se"- unrealistic

Expelling Austria without foreign help- unrealistic

French support of a united Italy under Piedmont- unrealistic

Southern Italian acceptance of Northern annexation- unrealistic

Piedmont had gained control of all Northern Italy through diplomacy and war anything else might lead to Civil War- time to stop



Garibaldi didn't know how to stop- obsessed with Rome, Naples, Sicily and Venetia- must be part of Italy

1860 Garibaldi and a Thousand "red-shirts" undertake a military expedition to Sicily in order to unite southern Italy with the north

Garibaldi is very successful in the south...frightfully so (to be discussed in more detail later)



Success in southern Italy

With Garibaldi winning in Sicily and freeing the island, Cavour had to act...

Garibaldi decided to invade the mainland and make his way to Naples. Cavour had to act...What will France do? Austria?

French army garrison stationed in Rome, the insane popularity of Garibaldi- he was becoming the ruler of the south! What would he do if he continued up the boot?

Cavour; "if, in spite of all our efforts, he should liberate southern Italy as he liberated Sicily, we would have no choice but to go along with him" what does this mean?


Cavour and Garibaldi

Piedmont must block Garibaldi from entering the north- Cavour's only tactic with any positive outcome (he thinks)

Piedmont "invades" the Papal States in order to protect them from the Garibaldian army- not well received- but Napoleon III turned a blind eye as long as Rome wasn't touched

October 1860- Garibaldi and his army meet Victor Emmanuel II at Teano. Garibaldi simply hands the south over to Victor Emmanuel

Cavour's gamble had paid off...March 1861- The Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed



The Kingdom of Italy

Cavour dies late March 1860- how the hell did Italy become united?

There is still some outstanding land- Rome and Venetia

1866- Austro Prussian War (also called the Third War of Independence for Italy)- Italy allied with Prussia- gains Venetia, despite doing poorly against the Austrians

1870- French troops are pulled from Rome to fight in the Franco-Prussian War- Rome is annexed by the Kingdom of Italy- the new capital (Patrimony of St. Peter- The Vatican City is left to the Pope)

Italy is complete


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