Social Accountability in the

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Presentations text content in Social Accountability in the

Slide1

Social Accountability in the Context of Transition in Arab States

UNDP Regional Governance Week

Cairo

, November

2012

Jeff

Thindwa

World Bank Institute

Slide2

Ways to Enhance Government Accountability?

1. Rules and Regulations – administrative procedures, audits,…2. Market

Principles – privatization or contracting out to private sector and NGOs3. Independent Agencies

– ombudsman, vigilance commissions,…

4.

“Social Accountability”

Varying

success with these. What

key lesson is success

often depends on direct

participation

of the people

Slide3

Defining

** ordinary citizens & CSOs participate in exacting accountabilitySocial Accountability

“an approach towards building accountability that relies on civic engagement”

Slide4

Social Accountability and Other Accountability Forms

VERTICAL

Citizens and other non-state actors directly seeking/enforcing accountability of government

DIAGONAL

Citizens directly engaged in horizontal accountability institutions

HORIZONTAL

Within government/checks and balances institutions

Slide5

Transparency

Openness, accessibility of government at all levels. ParticipationStakeholder influence and control. Ensures ownership, sustainability, risk mitigation, public support of reforms

Collaboration mechanisms for answerability and collaborative action

Demystifying and visualizing budget data; Disclosure mechanisms; Access to Information; stakeholder

capacity building for users

Support for

non-executive participation and monitoring

-

Parliaments

-

Media

-

CSOs

Joint

solutions

Multi-stakeholder

coalitions

Collaborative

leadership

teams

ANSA

Arab world

Organizing Framework for

SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY

ACCOUNTABILITY

Slide6

Oversight by Non-State Actors: A Multi-Stakeholder Perspective

Multi-stakeholder oversight

Public Accounts Committees (PACs)

Oversee implementation to guarantee proper budget execution

Independent Budget Analysis

External audit & budget oversight

Budget Oversight

Public Hearing

Social Audits to oversees the processes

Service

Delivery Monitoring Tools

: Citizen report card, citizen score card, social audit, procurement & contract monitoring

Slide7

Independent Accountability Agencies

Politicians /

Policymakers

State

Providers/Agencies

Formal and Informal

Social

Intermediaries

Citizens/Clients

Voice

Focus on citizen engagement in accountability relationships

7

Improve

capability

of

citizens to engage in governance

Enhance

capacity of social intermediaries

to provide effective participation and oversight (to inform, monitor, and improve service provision)

Improve

enabling environment

for citizen engagement in governance and public decision-making

Willingness & Capacity to Respond and Account

(political, socio-cultural, legal, and economic factors)

Willingness & Capacity to Demand

(political, socio-cultural, legal, and economic factors)

Increase

capacity of state to respond

to public needs and effective oversight and redress

Compact

Client Power

Slide8

8

Citizen Engagement in Public Financial Management

Citizen Engagement

Budget Formulation

Participatory Budgeting Porto

Alegre

, Brazil

Performance Monitoring

Zambia

service delivery

monitoring

Nepal Social Audits

Philippines

CheckMySchool

Procurement Monitoring

Budget/Expenditure

Tracking (Including Public Procurement)

Uganda

PETS ( Education and Health Sectors) – Philippines Procurement Watch

Budget Review & Analysis

DISHA, India

IDASA, S. Africa

Slide9

The Power of Transparency and Monitoring:

Primary Education in Uganda

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

US$ per

Student

Intended Grant Amount

Received by School (mean)

1999

2. Framework & Measurement: Examples

Slide10

Enabling environment

T

echnology

Strengthened Capacity of Government and Civil Society for SA

Legal Framework

Political

conditions

Information

Voice

Monitor:

m

onitoring and oversight of the public sector through mixed methods (social audits; procurement monitoring, independent budget and policy analysis

Information from this will inform stakeholder demand – and the cycle continues.

Response:

Actions to respond specifically to expressed demand (procurement monitoring reports); incentives to public officials linked to how they respond.

Bridging

mechanisms

How Social Accountability Works

Slide11

Strategic Level

Social Accountability mainstreamed into Country Strategies (Tunisia, Yemen, Egypt)

Political economy analysis

Scope of SA interventions and outcomes in strategies

Framework for WBG support for Social Accountability in MENA

Capacity-building

Better understanding of SA by civil society, governments, media and the private sector is enhanced (Morocco,

Jordan,Lebanon

, Tunisia

ANSA-Arab World as a network of SA practitioners in MNA

Operational Level

Mainstreaming Social accountability into Bank

operations (Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt, Lebanon etc)

Use budget transparency, third party monitoring, grievance redress mechanisms, ICT, etc in operations

Organize SA Clinics to support

Task Teams and he

lp mainstream SA across operations

Access to Information:

Slide12

CIVIL SOCIETY AND SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY

Stakeholder Consultations in programs, projects and AAA with two-way communication mechanisms

STAKEHOLDERS: CSOs, government, media, private sector

Objectives expected/Outcomes

4 Strategic Pillars : Access to information, freedom of associations, budget transparency and participatory M&E of service delivery

Officially launched network (March 2012)

7 SA Country Profiles

ATI

CoP

– Jordan, Lebanon, Tunisia and Morocco

Baseline survey

Regional Network of Social Accountability Practitioners – ANSA-Arab World (Affiliated Network for Social Accountability)

7 COUNTRIES: Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Jordan, Morocco, Lebanon,

West Bank & Gaza

Platform for

Awareness raising, Capacity Building and Networking

Slide13

ACCESS TO INFORMATION

ATI is central to government accountability,

Key priority in MENA is supporting governments with adoption and implementation of ATI legislation, and with disclosure laws/policies/practices

Key priority for ANSA Arab World

ANSA and World Bank Institute: support for ATO coalitions in

Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia

, working for adoption and effective implementation of ATI reforms, supported by country action plans

Partnerships with UNESCO and Open Society

Open Government

Partnership:P

Potential to expand access to

informaton

and citizen engagement in the context of the Open Government Partnership – ongoing Knowledge exchanges

generated demand in current member countries (

AFR and LCR

) and other countries interested in joining OGP (

Morocco, Tunisia)

Information is the oxygen of accountability. It is at the center of government accountability, and without it the foundations for citizen driven accountability are completely undermined.

One of the most important contributions to improving governance in this region as it makes slow but steady transition is therefore to support transparency and disclosure efforts including adoption of ATI legislation.

Slide14

Lessons about Social Accountability from other Countries in Transition

: the Philippines, Indonesia, and TurkeyActive citizen engagement requires enabling conditions: access to information; freedoms of association, assemblyGovernment outreach to civil society is critical to

building trustProactive disclosure of information by the government about its plans during transitions helps manage expectations of citizensImportant to invest in improving service delivery through partnership with civil society and service users

Engaging with a broader range of stakeholders during transitions increases the legitimacy of the new government and increases sustainability of reforms

Slide15

Lessons

Philippines: From People Power revolution - to pro-accountability citizen engagement – e.g. in public finance management, public procurement, education.

Indonesia: New legislation on freedom of association , expression created enabling conditions for citizen-based accountability e.g. community-driven development, natural resource management, education, local government.

Turkey: Despite difficult transition and setbacks, broadly progressive reforms created a better environment for civil society and guarantees of civil and political rights.

Slide16

Some MNA examples

Morocco: Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation for Education ServiceImprovement

initiative has coalition of parent associations and schoolstaff, to share knowledge and establish partnerships with local community

leaders. Resulted in improved student reading and comprehension skills,

enrolment , retention, and community maintenance of public schools. Egypt: C

ommunity score card (CSC) pilot is supporting the Ministry of Education’s

National Strategic Plan; has citizens monitoring school performance to increase accountability of school management for academic learning.

Tunisia:

Social and Economic Recovery Program promotes participatory monitoring of

health, education, and social assistance services, and to strengthen legal framework

for civil society participation; promotes transparency and independent monitoring by

facilitating access to data.

Yemen:

Water User Associations (WUAs) use community-based water management as

channel for response to community priorities and citizen participation in decision

making. The Social Accountability for Service Improvement initiative uses this

mechanism to improve the performance of the Sana'a water utility.

Slide17

Lessons from MENA

Active citizen participation in public affairs requires an enabling environment. Government outreach to civil society is critical to building confidence and trust.

Supply- and demand-side approaches can

work in a complementary way.

Reform = long process based on credibility & effectiveness of

formal/informal

institutions

.

Invest

in improving service delivery through partnership with civil society and citizens.

Bottom-up processes through decentralization

& CDD enable

citizen

participation, empowerment & improvement

of services.

Proactive disclosure by government of information about its plans during transitions helps manage expectations of citizens.

Engaging with a broader range of stakeholders during transitions increases the legitimacy of the new government and increases sustainability of reforms.

Effective, efficient and responsive delivery of basic social services through government can help rebuild and restore stability in the country.

Slide18

Thanks!Jeff

Thindwajthindwa@worldbank.orgWorld Bank Institute


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