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ASD and Literacy ASD Literacy Initiative

Literacy Characteristics. Matrix and Overlapping characteristics and integrated interventions. Guiding Principles. Literacy Hierarchy. Literacy Intervention Analysis. Literacy Strategies.  . Literacy: Guiding Principles .

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ASD and Literacy ASD Literacy Initiative

Presentation on theme: "ASD and Literacy ASD Literacy Initiative"— Presentation transcript:


ASD and Literacy Slide2

ASD Literacy Initiative

Literacy Characteristics

Matrix and Overlapping characteristics and integrated interventions

Guiding Principles

Literacy Hierarchy

Literacy Intervention AnalysisLiteracy Strategies Slide3

Literacy: Guiding Principles

(Kluth & Chandler-Olcott, 2008)

Maintain high expectations

Provide models of literate behavior

Elicit students’ perspectives

Promote diversity as a positive resourceAdopt “elastic” instructional approachesUse flexible grouping strategies

Differentiate instruction


Factors Influencing Comprehension

(Carnahan, Williamson, Christman, 2011)

Research evolving but still not sufficientSlide5

Balanced Literacy Model Used in Many Classrooms Slide7

Why this model?

Heavily grounded in reading research

Provides clear structures for differentiating teaching

Fits within a larger context of

Balanced Literacy Slide8

Balanced Literacy Slide9

Class-wide integrated strategies; visuals, modeling, graphic organizers, gauge understanding.

Small group; peer or teacher led questions and feedback. Integrated strategies and moderate differentiation.

Independent, direct instruction with teacher or peers, computer-based learning to supplement, and practice for generalization classroom literacy instruction. Integrated strategies and targeted differentiation.

Literacy Intervention Supports for ASD: Elementary AgeSlide10

Reading Comprehension Assessments




Benchmark Assessment System (BAS)—Systems 1 &2

Identify child’s instructional and independent reading levels according to the F & P Text Gradient, A-ZProvides 1:1 formative and summative assessmentsPrecise tools and texts to observe and quantify specific reading behaviorsProvides information about comprehension skills that extend beyond retelling


BAS Comprehension Conversation

System 1 (Levels A-N); System 2 (Levels L-Z)

Within the Text

Literal meaning of text

Recalling information in summary form

Beyond the TextMaking PredictionsInferring

Synthesizing new information

About the Text

Identification of literary elements of text

Recognizing elements of the writer’s craft

Thinking critically about the text


Reading Comprehension Assessments

Qualitative Reading Inventory, 5



Informal assessment instrument

Contains narrative and expository passagesPre-primer through high school levelMeasures comprehension by retelling passages, using implicit and explicit questionsProvides diagnostic options to identify reading levels to match students to appropriate materials, determining a reader strengths & needs and suggestions for intervention instruction

Newest version will be released in 2017


Reading Comprehension Strategies

Serve as tools in supporting students in constructing meaning, monitoring comprehension and thinking critically about texts

Research indicates that a


of reading comprehension strategies

explicitly taught in authentic contexts results in purposeful, active readers

(Harvey &


, 2007)


ASD and Quality Literacy Instruction

(Carnahan, Williamson, Quill 2010)Slide15

Framework for Building Comprehension with ASD

(Carnahan, Williamson, Christman, 2011)

Link literacy to student’s special interests.

Make explicit connections to student’s prior experiences (e.g. texts already read, television shows, movies, games, etc.).

Individualize instruction and adapt text to meet student’s needs (e.g. add visuals at sentence or paragraph levels, alter passage length, present text in a variety of alternative mediums to determine which promotes greatest comprehension.

Use a variety of instructional techniques including grouping and specific strategies including small and large group reading combined with partner reading and individualized (one on one) lessons utilizing explicit instruction and computer assisted instruction; priming before introducing new material.Teach

specific strategies

(e.g. summarizing, identify main idea, question and answer strategies, anaphoric cueing, teaching connections-words referring to other words)Slide16

Level 2: Explicit ASD Reading Comprehension Strategy Instruction Components

(Harvey &

Goudvis, 2007)


Level 2: Explicit

Strategy Instruction

Targets cognitive processes necessary for the following:

Identification of key information

Summarization and synthesis of information






, and Oakhill, 2005)


Level 2: START Literacy Checklist

Targets cognitive processes necessary for the following:

Core characteristics

Level 2 Support StrategiesSlide19

Level 3: Literacy Intervention Model

Most intensive, differentiated form of instruction

Uses EBP universal support and more targeted interventions based on student need

Typically administered in one on one setting with teacher or peer, or small group with intervention focused on needs of student with ASD

Sample strategies given for each ASD characteristic

Framework for Level 3 createdSlide20

Level 3: Literacy FrameworkSlide21

Level 3: Literacy InterventionSlide22

Literacy Glossary & Comparative Terms

Strategy Term Used

Other Terms for Same Strategy

or Procedure


Beginning, starting (before intervention), pre-dataExplicit TeachingDirect InstructionModelingDemonstrate, example, exemplar, imitate, representation, role play, simulationPeer SupportPeer mentor, peer mediation, peer assistancePrimingBehavior rehearsal, rehearsal, practice


Cue/cuing, reminder

Read AloudShared reading, reciting, vocabulary development


Rewards, motivators, incentivesSlide23

Literacy Resources

Carnahan, C., Williamson, P., Christmas, J. (2011). Linking cognition and literacy in students with autism spectrum disorder,

TEACHING Exceptional Children


Carnahan, C., Williamson, P., Quill, K. (2010

). Quality Literacy Instruction for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Autism Asperger Publishing Company:Shawnee Mission, Kansas.Happe, F. & Frith, U. (2006). The Weak Coherence Account: Detail Focused Cognitive Style in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36

, 5-25.

Harvey, S. &


, A. (2007).

Strategies That Work: Teaching Comprehension for Understanding and Engagement.



Kluth, P. & Chandler, Olcott (2008). A

Land We Can Share: Teaching Literacy to Student with Autism





N., Oakhill J. (2005).

The Acquisition of Reading Comprehension Skill. The Science of Reading: A Handbook. London, UK: Blackwell; pp. 227-247

Randi, J, Newman, T. &


, E. (2010).

Teaching Children with Autism to Read for Meaning: Challenges and Possibilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40

(7), 890-902.

Singer, B., Bashir, A., Graham, H. & Lofgren, J. (2000).


: A Method for Teaching Expository Writing, Teacher’s Guide. Architects for Learning, LLC.