Chapter 6: Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems

Chapter 6:          Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems Chapter 6:          Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems - Start

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Chapter 6: Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems




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Presentations text content in Chapter 6: Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems

Slide1

Chapter 6: Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems

Slide2

Explain how biomes are characterized

Describe how net primary production varies among biomes

Explain how organisms are adapted to the conditions of their biomes

Describe the criteria ecologist use to classify aquatic systems

List the major categories of freshwater ecosystems

Explain the ecological importance of estuaries

List the three major zones of the ocean

Define the following terms: biome, climate, weather, climatograph, net primary production, canopy, emergent layer, understory, epiphyte, deciduous, estivation, coniferous, hibernation, permafrost, salinity, photic zone, aphotic zone, benthic zone, littoral zone, limnetic zone, wetland, flood plain, estuary, upwelling,

Chapter 6: 164-195

Slide3

Do Now Turn IN

Explain in words and or a diagram the transition between winter and spring on the earth

and what it means for us in the Northern Hemisphere.

Do you know exactly what time spring starts?

Slide4

On March 20, there are twelve hours of daylight and twelve hours of darkness at all points on the earth's surface. Sunrise is at 6 a.m. and sunset is at 6 p.m. local (solar) time for most points on the earth's surface. (This varies, of course, based on time zones, which are much broader regions than local solar time.)

Equinoxes occur when the axis of rotation of the earth (i.e. the line form the N to S poles) is exactly parallel to the direction of motion of the earth around the sun. This happens on just two days of the year, the spring and autumn equinoxes. This means that day length is exactly the same (12 hours) at all points on the earth's surface on these days (except right at each pole, where it will be about to change from permanent light to dark, or vice versa).

Slide5

During an equinox, the

Earth

's North and South poles are not tilted toward or away from the

Sun

and the length of the day is the same at all points on Earth's surface

Slide6

Do Now

What is FOG?

What causes Fog?

Slide7

Do Now

What is FOG?

What causes Fog?

a thick cloud of tiny water droplets suspended in the atmosphere at or near the earth's surface that obscures or restricts visibility – basically it is a ground level CLOUD

2 types of fog:

Advection

Radiation

Slide8

Do Now

Advection Fog

Advection fog

occurs when moist air passes over a cool surface by advection (wind) and is cooled.

It is most common at sea when moist air encounters cooler waters.

Slide9

Do Now

Radiation Fog?

The cool ground produces condensation in the nearby air by heat conduction.

Radiation fogs occur at night, and usually do not last long after sunrise, though can persist all day in the winter months

Slide10

What are the differences?

Climate, Biology, Limiting Factors, Adaptations?

Slide11

Things Change?

Fossil evidence suggests that the frozen continent of Antarctica was once covered in temperate forest.

Slide12

Earth’s Biomes

Groups of terrestrial ecosystems that share biotic and abiotic conditions

10 primary biomes:

tropical rain forest

dry forest savanna

Savanna

desert

temperate rain forest

temperate forest

temperate grassland

chaparral

boreal forest

tundra

Slide13

Slide14

Slide15

Slide16

CLIMATOGRAPH

Slide17

La Mesa, CA

CLIMATOGRAPH

Slide18

Philadelphia

CLIMATOGRAPH

Slide19

Climate: Average conditions,

including temperature and

precipitation, over long periods

of time in a given area

Weather: Day-to-day conditions

in Earth’s atmosphere

Climatographs

: Diagrams that summarize an area’s average monthly temperature and precipitation

Each biome has a set of characteristic organisms adapted to its particular climate conditions.

Slide20

Across the U.S.

Slide21

Productivity

Net primary production:

The amount of organic matter (biomass) that remains after primary producers use some to carry out cellular respiration

Ecosystems vary in their

net primary productivity,

the rate

at which primary producers convert energy to biomass.

Warm, wet biomes generally have higher net primary productivity than cold, dry biomes.

Slide22

Slide23

Earth’s productivity: On land forests are highly productive in dark green, deserts least in brown. At sea, red indicates high productivity and deep oceans dark blue.

Slide24

Slide25

Aquatic Ecosystems (Wet Biomes)

75% of Earth’s surface is covered by water.

Slide26

Salinity:

the amount of dissolved salt present in water. Ecosystems are classified as

salt water

,

fresh water

, or

brackish

depending on salinity.

Photosynthesis

tends to be limited by light availability, which is a function of depth and water clarity.

Aquatic ecosystems are either

flowing or standing

.

Aquatic ecosystem zones:

photic, aphotic, benthic

Slide27

Aquatic Ecosystem Limiting Factors

Limiting factors may include:

Salinity

Ph

Sunlight

Dissolved oxygen

Temperature

Slide28

Freshwater Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Inland Seas

Salinity is less than 0.5

ppt

(parts per thousand)

Diagram is in book on page 183

Slide29

Freshwater Ecosystems:

Wetlands

Areas of land flooded with water at least part of the year

Include freshwater marshes, swamps, bogs, and fens

Slide30

Freshwater Ecosystems:

Rivers and Streams

Bodies of surface water that flow downhill, eventually reaching an ocean or inland sea

Delaware Water Gap

Slide31

Estuaries

Occur where a river flows into the ocean or an inland sea

Coastal estuaries are brackish ecosystems; organisms must tolerate wide salinity and temperature ranges.

Coastal estuaries are home to salt marshes and mangrove forests.

Slide32

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Slide34

Slide35

Slide36

Oceans

Intertidal Areas

Neritic Zones

Open Ocean

Slide37

Slide38

Review

Explained how biomes are characterized

Described how net primary production varies among biomes

Explained how organisms are adapted to the conditions of their biomes

Described the criteria ecologist use to classify aquatic systems

Listed the major categories of freshwater ecosystems

Explained the ecological importance of estuaries

Listed the three major zones of the ocean

Slide39

Chapter 6 Review

Explain what biomes and aquatic ecosystems are

Explain how biomes are characterized.

Describe how net primary productivity varies among biomes.


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