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Greetings From Texas! Continental Divide Greetings From Texas! Continental Divide

Greetings From Texas! Continental Divide - PowerPoint Presentation

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Greetings From Texas! Continental Divide - PPT Presentation

  Hermeneutics What is it Hermeneutics Hermes was the Greek god who allegedly interpreted the message of the gods to mortals The word hermeneuo means to explain interpret Luke 2427 Then beginning with Moses and with all the prophets ID: 685670

god scripture meaning words scripture god words meaning bible jesus principle single authority sense jesus

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Slide1

Greetings From Texas!Slide2

Continental Divide

 Slide3

Hermeneutics

What is it?Slide4

Hermeneutics

Hermes was the Greek god who allegedly interpreted the message of the gods to mortals. The word

hermeneuo

, means "to explain, interpret."

Luke 24:27 - Then beginning with Moses and with all the prophets,

He explained

to them the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures.v.32 “…were not our hearts burning within us…while He was explaining the Scriptures to us?” Slide5

A

. Definitions

1. Hermeneutics

…deals with the

methods

, rules, and/or principles which will best serve in deriving the proper interpretation of any portion of Scripture.2. Canonical Criticism……deals with the determination and recognition of the books of Scripture which God intended to be included in the Bible. Slide6

A

. Definitions

3. Canonical

Criticism…

…deals with the determination and recognition of the

books of Scripture

which God intended to be included in the Bible. 4. Textual Criticism… …deals with the determination and recognition of the words of Scripture which words are truly a part of the proper text and which words were not actually in the original, Spirit-inspired manuscripts. Slide7

A. Definitions

5

. Exegesis

…deals with the

application of the methods, rules, and/or principles to the text so as to bring out the actual meaning. Exegesis and hermeneutics are closely related. Slide8
Slide9

Bible

What is it?Slide10

The Bible

The Foundation of Knowledge

Three assumptions:

God is

Proverbs 1:7 -

The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge; Fools despise wisdom and instruction. Proverbs 9:10 - The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom, And the knowledge of the Holy One is understanding. Hebrews 11:6 - And without faith it is impossible to please Him, for he who comes to God must believe that He is and that He is a rewarder of those who seek Him.Slide11

God has Spoken

Psalm 111:10

- The

fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom; A good understanding have all those who do

His commandments

; Revelation 19:9 - Then he said to me, "Write, 'Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb.'" And he said to me, "These are true words of God.” Revelation 21:5 - And He who sits on the throne said, "Behold, I am making all things new." And He said, "Write, for these words are faithful and true."Revelation 22:6 - And he said to me, "These words are faithful and true"; and the Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets, sent His angel to show to His bond-servants the things which must soon take place. Slide12

“true

w

ords” – What does this mean?

The words are

truly

God’s

Not man’s, not pretended words of God, all of them, authentically God’s words The words themselves are true Free from error, certain The words themselves are faithfulReliable, enduring, will accomplish their purpose Slide13

The Bible - Foundation

of

Knowledge

Biblical

Assumptions

God is

God has spokenGod’s words are written in the BibleSlide14

God’s Words are Written in the Bible

Βίβλος (Bible) -

a specific composition or class of composition,

book

(Ardnt, Danker & Bauer)Book of GenealogyMatthew 1:1 - The record (Βίβλος) of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah, the son of David, the son of Abraham:Book of LifePhilippians 4:3 - Indeed, true companion, I ask you also to help these women who have shared my struggle in the cause of the gospel, together with Clement also and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book (Βίβλος) of life. Slide15

God’s Words are Written in the Bible

Book of

Holy

W

ritings (words

of God)

Mark 12:24 - Jesus said to them, "Is this not the reason you are mistaken, that you do not understand the Scriptures or the power of God? 25 "For when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 26 "But regarding the fact that the dead rise again, have you not read in the book of Moses, in the passage about the burning bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I AM THE GOD OF ABRAHAM, AND THE GOD OF ISAAC, and the God of Jacob '? 27 "He is not the God of the dead, but of the living; you are greatly mistaken." Slide16

God’s Words are Written in the Bible

Jesus’ Assumptions:

God

is!

God has spoken!

His

words are preserved in a book of holy writings!The Bible was written in order to convey meaning!The Bible is authoritative – it settles disputes!Jesus is our model! If we follow Jesus at all, we must approach Scripture the way He did!Slide17

Excursus: Detail & Authority

A

Closer Look at Jesus’ Approach to Scripture

1. Jesus

’ view of the Authority of Scripture

Mark 12:24

- Jesus said to them, "Is this not the reason you are mistaken, that you do not understand the Scriptures or the power of God?...26 "But regarding the fact that the dead rise again, have you not read in the book of Moses, in the passage about the burning bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I AM THE GOD OF ABRAHAM, AND THE GOD OF ISAAC, and the God of Jacob '? 27 "He is not the God of the dead, but of the living; you are greatly mistaken." Slide18

Excursus: Detail & Authority

A

Closer Look at Jesus’ Approach to Scripture

According to Acts

23:8, the Sadducees thought that a person’s existence ended at death.

Jesus countered their mistaken notion by referring to

Exodus 3:6: “I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” If the Sadducees were correct and Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob had died and were no longer present anywhere, the words “I am” should have been “I was.” The use of the present tense, “I am,” implied that God is still the God of these patriarchs for they are alive with God and ultimately will share in the resurrection of the righteous.Slide19

Excursus: Detail & Authority

A

Closer Look at Jesus’ Approach to Scripture

The main point is that the weight of Jesus’ argument hangs upon the

tense of a single verb

. He quotes Exodus 3:6, God’s name is “I AM” – present continuous tense. Based upon the tense of this one word, Jesus directly tells them “you are mistaken.”

SMALL DETAILS ARE IMPORTANT!Matthew 5:18 "For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished. Slide20

Excursus: Detail & Authority

A

Closer Look at Jesus’ Approach to Scripture

2. Jesus

’ view of the Authority of

Scripture

Matthew 26:52 Then Jesus said to him, "Put your sword back into its place; for all those who take up the sword shall perish by the sword. 53 "Or do you think that I cannot appeal to My Father, and He will at once put at My disposal more than twelve legions of angels? 54 "How then will the Scriptures be fulfilled, which say that it must happen this way?"Slide21

Excursus: Detail & Authority

A

Closer Look at Jesus’ Approach to Scripture

2. Jesus

’ view of the Authority of

Scripture (continued)

Luke 22:37 "For I tell you that this which is written must be fulfilled in Me, 'AND HE WAS NUMBERED WITH TRANSGRESSORS'; for that which refers to Me has its fulfillment."  Luke 24:44 Now He said to them, "These are My words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things which are written about Me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled." 45 Then He opened their minds to understand the Scriptures, 46 and He said to them, "Thus it is written, that the Christ would suffer and rise again from the dead the third day, 47 and that repentance for forgiveness of sins would be proclaimed in His name to all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem.  Slide22

Excursus: Detail & Authority

A

Closer Look at Jesus’ Approach to Scripture

2. Jesus

’ view of the Authority of

Scripture (continued)

John 10:35 …the Scripture cannot be broken…Luke 16:17 "But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for one stroke of a letter of the Law to fail.Luke 21:33 "Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will not pass away. Slide23

Excursus: Detail & Authority

A

Closer Look at Jesus’ Approach to Scripture

2. Jesus

’ view of the Authority of

Scripture (continued)

The Apostles followed Jesus’ example.Consider Peter’s use of Psalm 34 in 1 Peter 3:10-12For Peter, Scripture was an authoritative source not only to settle disputes but to encourage hearts…even in a diaspora…AND…it can be applied to a contemporary audience and still be authoritative. Slide24

Excursus:

A

Closer Look at Jesus’ Approach to ScriptureSlide25

Excursus: Detail & Authority

A

Closer Look at Jesus’ Approach to Scripture

Quotes:

The authority of Scripture means that all the words in Scripture are God’s words in such a way that to disbelieve or disobey any word of Scripture is to disbelieve or disobey God.

Since God is the author, the Bible is authoritative. It is absolute in its authority for human thought and behavior. “As the Scripture has said” is a recurring theme throughout the New Testament. In fact,

the New Testament contains more than two hundred direct quotations of the Old Testament. In addition, the New Testament has a large and uncertain number of allusions to the Old. New Testament writers, following the example of Jesus Christ, built their theology on the Old Testament. For Christ and the apostles, to quote the Bible was to settle an issue. (Understanding and Applying the Bible, [Chicago: Moody, 1983, 1992], 20)Slide26

Excursus:

A

Closer Look at Jesus’ Approach to ScriptureSlide27

The Bible - Foundation

of

Knowledge

Biblical

Assumptions

God is!

God has spoken!God’s words are written in the Bible!Slide28

Two fundamental

assumptions of man:

The Bible is

true

The

Bible is false

Matthew 7:24 - "Therefore everyone who hears these words of Mine and acts on them, may be compared to a wise man who built his house on the rock. 25 "And the rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and slammed against that house; and yet it did not fall, for it had been founded on the rock. 26 "Everyone who hears these words of Mine and does not act on them, will be like a foolish man who built his house on the sand. 27 "The rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and slammed against that house; and it fell-- and great was its fall." Slide29

We believe:

God is!

God has spoken!

God’s words are written in the Bible!

God’s words were written to convey meaning!

The Bible is true!

Therefore we conclude:A proper hermeneutic begins with an approach to Scripture that lets it speak to us!!!Slide30

A.

Principle of single meaning

1.

Jesus

’ hermeneutic in Matthew 9:13

Matthew

9:13 "But go and learn what this means: 'I DESIRE COMPASSION, AND NOT SACRIFICE,' for I did not come to call the righteous, but sinners." Scripture has “meaning” that can be learned (and must be learned – 2 imperatives)“what this means” is singularHosea 6:6Slide31

Principle

of single

meaning

Jesus’ hermeneutic in Matthew

9:13

Hosea 6:6

KJV Hosea 6:6 For I desired mercy, and not sacrifice; and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings. (Hos 6:6 KJV)ESV Hosea 6:6 For I desire steadfast love and not sacrifice, the knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings. (Hos 6:6 ESV)NAU Hosea 6:6 For I delight in loyalty rather than sacrifice, And in the knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings. (Hos 6:6 NAU)If the Pharisees had understood this principle, they would not have asked their incriminating question. Slide32

Principle

of single

meaning

Jesus

’ hermeneutic in Matthew 12:7

NAU

Matthew 12:7 "But if you had known what this means, 'I DESIRE COMPASSION, AND NOT A SACRIFICE,' you would not have condemned the innocent. Scripture has “meaning” that should have been known.Hosea 6:6 “what this means” is singular but the application is multiple: one meaning many applications.If the Pharisees had understood this principle, they would not have condemned the innocent.Slide33

A. Principle of single meaning

3.

Definition of single meaning

The meaning expressed in each biblical text is single, definite, and fixed.

Milton Terry, “A fundamental principle in

grammatico

-historical exposition is that the words and sentences can have but one significance in one and the same connection. The moment we neglect this principle we drift out upon a sea of uncertainty and conjecture.”This does not deny that there can be many applications of a text, one meaning yet many applications.Bernard Ramm, “We must remember the old adage: ‘Interpretation is one; application is many.’ This means that there is only one meaning to a passage of Scripture which is determined by careful study”Slide34

A. Principle of single meaning

4.

Multiple meanings in history

Augustine

Augustine’s

Christian Doctrine

is the earliest manual of Biblical hermeneutics. In it, he presses the view that the Scripture is designed to have more interpretations than one“When, again, not some one interpretation, but two or more interpretations are put upon the same words of Scripture, even though the meaning the writer intended remain undiscovered, there is no danger if it can be shown from other passages of Scripture that any of the interpretations put on the words is in harmony with the truth….…For what more liberal and more fruitful provision could God have made in regard to the Sacred Scriptures than that the same words might be understood in several senses, all of which are sanctioned by the concurring testimony of other passages equally divine?”Slide35

A. Principle of single meaning

4.

Multiple meanings in history

Middle Ages (fourfold sense of Scripture)

After Augustine, the understanding of the Bible as having a fourfold sense (literal, allegorical,

tropological

, anagogical) brought together the main streams of patristic hermeneutics.The literal sense – the plain meaning of Scripture in its historical context.The literal sense could…nurture the virtues of faith, hope, and love. When it did not, the interpreter could appeal to three additional senses. The allegorical sense referred to the church and its faith, what it was to believe. Slide36

A. Principle of single meaning

4.

Multiple meanings in history

Middle Ages (fourfold sense of Scripture)

The

tropological

or moral sense referred to individuals and what they should do, corresponding to love. The anagogical sense pointed to the church’s expectation, corresponding to hope. For example, the city of Jerusalem, in all its appearances in Scripture, was understood literally as a Jewish city, allegorically as the church of Jesus Christ, tropologically as the souls of men and women, and anagogically as the heavenly city.Slide37

A. Principle of single meaning

4.

Multiple meanings in history

Reformation

A reformation in hermeneutics

Luther

The excessive taste for this (fourfold) style of interpretation… was sternly rebuked by the Reformers. Especially did Luther utter his protest, on the ground that the fancies into which this method was apt to lead had a tendency to shake confidence in the literal truth of the sacred volume. He remarks, “Augustine said beautifully that a figure proves nothing;” but, probably from the high regard he had for the great theologian, he did not condemn his allegorizing exegesis.Slide38

A. Principle of single meaning

4.

Multiple meanings in history

Reformation

Tyndale

But the fourfold sense which might have survived Erasmus, and even Luther, received its death-blow from the masculine good sense of the English Reformers. (Farrar)

“We may borrow similitudes or allegories from the Scriptures,” says … Tyndale, “and apply them to our purposes, which allegories are no sense of the Scriptures, but free things besides the Scriptures altogether in the liberty of the Spirit. Such allegory proveth nothing, it is a mere simile. God is a Spirit, and all his words are spiritual, and His literal sense is spiritual.”  Slide39

A. Principle of single meaning

4.

Multiple meanings in history

Reformation

Tyndale

As to those three spiritual senses,” says Whitaker … “it is surely foolish to say there are as many senses in Scripture as the words themselves may be transferred and accommodated to bear. For although the words may be applied and accommodated tropologically, anagogically, allegorically, or any other way, yet there are not therefore various senses, various interpretations, and explications of Scripture, but there is but one sense and that the literal, which may be variously accommodated, and from which various things may be collected.”Slide40

A. Principle of single meaning

5.

Allegorical or literal interpretation?

Lingering hermeneutical reformation era hangover

question

The

issue becomes should we approach a text from a “literal” grammatical-historical or “allegorical” grammatical-historical manner of interpretation? Or allow a mixture of both?Slide41

A. Principle of single meaning

6. Example – Luke 10:30-37 – The Good Samaritan

Allegorical interpretation

We were like this poor distressed

traveler.

Satan, our enemy, had robbed us, stripped us, wounded us; such is the mischief that sin had done us. We were by nature more than half dead, twice dead, in trespasses and sins; utterly unable to help ourselves, for we were without strength.

The law of Moses, like the priest and Levite, the ministers of the law, looks upon us, but has no compassion on us, gives us no relief, passes by on the other side, as having neither pity nor power to help us; but then comes the blessed Jesus, that good Samaritan… he has compassion on us, he binds up our bleeding wounds, pours in, not oil and wine, but that which is infinitely more precious, his own blood. He takes care of us, and bids us put all the expenses of our cure upon his account; … This magnifies the riches of his love, and obliges us all to say, “How much are we indebted, and what shall we render?”Slide42

A. Principle of single meaning

6. Example – Luke 10:30-37 – The Good Samaritan

J.C. Ryle

I hold it to be a most dangerous mode of interpreting Scripture, to regard everything which its words may be tortured into meaning, as a lawful interpretation of the words. I hold undoubtedly that there is a mighty depth in all Scripture, and that in this respect it stands alone.

But I also hold that the words of Scripture were intended to have one definite sense, and that our first object should be to discover that sense, and adhere rigidly to it.

I believe that, as a general rule, the words of Scripture are intended to have, like all other language, one plain, definite meaning, and that to say that words do mean a thing, merely because they can be tortured into meaning it, is a most dishonorable and dangerous way of handling

Scripture.