Glycolysis. C483 Spring 2013. 1. The . conversion of pyruvate to ethanol also causes the ________. . A) oxidation of NADH . B) production of ADP . C) consumption of O2 . D) generation of an ion gradient across mitochondrial membranes . ID: 274738
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Pyruvate and Energetics of Glycolysis
C483 Spring 2013Slide2
conversion of pyruvate to ethanol also causes the ________.
A) oxidation of NADH
B) production of ADP
C) consumption of O2
D) generation of an ion gradient across mitochondrial membranes
enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate is ________.
B) pyruvate kinase
D) lactate dehydrogenase
Which fate of pyruvate is an anaerobic process?
Formation of alanine
Formation of oxaloacetate
Formation of acetyl CoA
Formation of lactateSlide3
Seven of the ten reactions in the glycolytic pathway have free energy values close to zero. What does this tell us about those reactions?
A) They are near equilibrium reactions.
B) They are not control points for pathway regulation.
C) They are reversible reactions.
D) All of the above.
E) None of the above.
Which of the following is false concerning steps 1, 3, and 10 of glycolysis?
All are catalyzed by a kinase.
All involve ATP hydrolysis
All have a negative standard free energy
All have a negative free energy under cellular conditions
All are irreversible steps.Slide4
Fate of Pyruvate
The Problem of Anaerobic Metabolism
With oxygen, the NADH produced in glycolysis is re-oxidized back to NAD
/NADH is a co-substrate which means…
If there is no oxygen, glycolysis will stop because…
The solution to the problem is to…Slide6
The solution in Yeast
cofactor?) to acetaldehyde
Acetaldehyde transformed to ethanol
What type of reaction?
is regenerated to be reused in GAPDHSlide7
Balanced Anaerobic Equation
The Solution in Us
Lactate formationBalanced equationDo the same exercise as yeastSlide9
Overall Energetics of Glycolysis
Standard Free energy change, and standard free energy change at 37o with ionsProblem?Slide10
Actual Free energy
Irreversible reactions: Which type of enzymes?Near-equilibrium reactionsNotice: reactions 5 and 6 togetherSlide11