Chapter 29 Chordates Vertebrates

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Chapter 29 Chordates Vertebrates




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Presentations text content in Chapter 29 Chordates Vertebrates

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Chapter 29 ChordatesVertebrates

General Biology IIBSC 2011

Insert photo here representing

chapter

Caption:

X-ray of a

paratype

of

Paedophryne

amauensis

(LSUMZ 95002

)

©

Rittmeyer

EN et al. (2012

),

Public Domain

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Phylum ChordataChordates are deuterostome coelomatesRemember that Echinoderms are also deuterostomesPhylum ChordataSubphylum UrochordataInvertebrate chordates - tunicatesSubphylum CephalochordataInvertebrate chordates - lancelets

Subphylum VertebrataMajority of this chapter will focus on the vertebrates

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Characteristics of ChordatesAll chordates possess these 4 characteristics at some point during developmentNotochordFlexible, rod-shaped structure that runs along nerve chordIn vertebrates, notochord develops into vertebraeDorsal hollow nerve cordIn vertebrates, develops into spinal cordPharyngeal gill slits

Vertebrate fish – develop into gill supportsIn tetrapods (4 limbed vertebrates) – develop into parts of ears and tonsilsPost-anal tail

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Subphylum UrochordataTunicatesLarvae is motileAdults are sessile on the ocean floorFilter feeders

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Caption: Group of blue sea squirts of genus Rhopalaea from East Timor

© Nick Hobgood, Public Domain

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Subphylum CephalochordataLancelets

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Caption: Branchiostoma

lanceolatum © Hans Hillewaert

, Public Domain

Slide6

The rest of the chapter will talk about Subphylum VertebrataFish Jawless fishJawed fishCartilageneous fishBony FishRay-finned fishLobed-finned fishAmphibiansReptilesBirdsMammals

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CraniumCartilaginous, bony or fibrous structure surrounding the brainVertebral column

Caption: Modified Illustration from Anatomy & Physiology © Jmrchn, Public Domain

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FishFish are the most diverse group of vertebrates

Caption: Seahorse ultra close up © Bone Clones, Public Domain

Caption:

Muraena helena (Moray eel) in Sala

Maremagnum of Aquarium Finisterrae (House of the Fishes), in Corunna, Galicia, Spain © Papa Lima Whiskey,

Public Domain

Caption:

Whale shark Georgia aquarium

© Zac Wolfe,

Public Domain

Slide9

FishJawless fishJawed FishThe evolution of jaws in the fish was a big evolutionary step for vertebrates

Caption: Bone Clones image of Great White Shark jaw © Bone Clones,

Public Domain

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FishJawless FishHagfish Lampreys

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Caption:

Petromyzon marinus (Lamprey) mouth in

Sala Maremagnum of Aquarium Finisterrae ©

Drow_male

,

Public Domain

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FishGnathostomes – Jawed FishEvolution of jaws allowed vertebrates to exploit food sources not to jawless fish, allows grasping and tearing of food sourcesChondrichthyes – cartilaginous fishBony Fish – OsteichthyesActinopterygii – ray-finned fishSarcopterygii

– lobe-finned fish

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FishChondrichthyes Sharks, skates, raysDominant predators of the oceanSkeleton made of cartilageEvolution of teeth – modified placoid scales

Caption:

Great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) off South Africa© Hermanus

Backpackers, Public Domain

Caption:

Southern

stingrays (

Dasyatis

americana

) at Stingray City

© Barry Peters,

Public Domain

Slide13

FishChondrichthyesSharks have keen sense of smellAmpullae of Lorenzini – detect electromagnetic fields of living thingsLateral line – detects movement and vibrations in waterBony fish have this, also

Caption:

Diagram of the sharks lateral line system © Chris huh, Public Domain

Slide14

Fish Osteichthyes – bony fishGills covered by operculumSwim bladder – helps with bouyancy

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FishActinopterygii – Ray-finned fish

Caption: Rose fish © gimp-savvy, Public Domain

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FishSarcopterygii – Lobe-finned fishBone structures are in the fins, allows for support

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Evolution of lobe-finned fish lead to the tetrapod amphibiansTiktaalik fossil – link between lobe-finned fish and 4 legged amphibians

Caption: Illustration showing the deviation between the scapula / shoulder and the attachment for hindlimbs in Crossopterygiin fishes ( A. ) and the corresponding bones in early

tetrapodas ( B. ). The difference between the the animals skeleton shows how much the "hips" in fishes should need to change if the

Crossopterygiins should became a landliving animal. ©

Conty, Public Domain

Caption:

Life

restoration of

Tiktaalik

roseae

, a transitional fossil ("missing link") between sarcopterygian fishes and

tetrapods

from the late Devonian period of North America. Original description: "Fossil fish bridges evolutionary gap between animals of land and sea."

© Zina

Deretsky

,

Public Domain

Slide18

AmphibiansTetrapodsTerrestrial but still tied to waterCutaneous respiration – skin has to stay moist for gas exchangeSome amphibians also have lungsSome have gillsEggs are laid in water

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AmphibiansUrodela – salamadersSome have gills, some have lungsInternal fertilization

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AmphibiansAnura – frogs and toadsExternal fertilizationBody plan that is specialized for movement, jumping

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AmphibiansApoda – caecilliansLegless amphibians, evolutionary reversal

Caption: Siphonopas paulensis ©Ariovaldo

Giaretta , Public Domain

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Amniotes – reptiles, birds, mammalsEgg protected by amniotic membranesDownload for free at http://cnx.org/contents/185cbf87-c72e-48f5-b51e-f14f21b5eabd@10.61

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First amniotes evolved from amphibian ancestors approximately 340 million years agoInitial split was into Synapsids and SauropsidsSynapsids – mammals, 1 temporal fenestraeSauropsids – anapsids and diapsidsAnapsids – no temporal fenestrae, turtlesDiapsids – 2 temporal fenestrae

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Reptiles and BirdsLepidosaurs – lizards, snakes, tuatarasArchosaurs – dinosaurs, crocs and alligators, birds

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ReptilesTetrapods (snakes have secondarily lost their legs)Scaly skinEctotherms – body heat is dependent on the environment

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ReptilesDinosaursDominant vertebrate until 65 million years agoMight have been endothermicEvidence of parental care

Caption: Fossils of a stegosaur (Stegosaurus stenops

, DMNH 2249), and its babies being attacked by an allosaur (Allosaurus fragilis, DMNH 1483) at the Denver Museum of Science and Nature

©Luke Jones , Public Domain

Slide28

ReptilesCrocodilia – crocs, alligators

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ReptilesSphenodontia – tuataras2 species living in New Zealand

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ReptilesSquamata – lizards and snakesLargest group of reptilesFound everywhere but Antarctica diverse

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ReptilesTestudines – turtlesShellVentral surface – plastronDorsal surface – carapace, forms from ribs

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BirdsEndothermicHave high metabolic rate, flight is metabolically expensiveModifications for flight:Feathers – modified scalesAlso aid in insulationHollow bonesSternum in shape of keelEfficient respiration

Caption:

Aptenodytes forsteri ©Ian Duffy ,

Public Domain

Caption:

Bald Eagle in Flight

© Jean Beaufort,

Public Domain

Slide33

BirdsEvolution still unclear but birds are more closely related to dinosaurs than modern day reptilesArchaeopteryx – important fossil, intermediate to birds and dinosaurs

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Slide34

MammalsEndothermicHair Mammary glandsTypes of teeth indicate diet

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MammalsMonotremes – platypus and echidnasLay eggs – eggs are leathery like turtle eggsNo teeth

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Slide36

Mammals MarsupialsEmbryo continues development in a pouchMainly in AustraliaOne species in North America, opossum

Caption: Marsupialia collage ©Danielle Pugliesi , Public Domain

Slide37

MammalsEutheriansMost of the mammalsTrue placental mammalsOrder Primates – lemurs, monkeys, apes, humansProsimians – smaller brain, nocturnalLemurs, bush babiesAnthropoids- monkeys, apes, humans

Slide38

MammalsAnthropoidsOld World Monkeys (Africa and Asia)Apes – no tails, spend most of the time on the ground, more intelligentChimpsGorillaOrangutanshumansNew World Monkeys (South America)

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MammalsOrder PrimatesFamily Hominidae – hominoids (chimps, gorilla, humans)

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