Photosynthesis

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Photosynthesis




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Presentations text content in Photosynthesis

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Photosynthesis

Textbook pages 97 – 103

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Photosynthesis

process used by plants using light energy to create sugar (glucose, C6H12O6) from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O)oxygen gas (O2) is produced as a waste product and the light energy used is stored as chemical energy

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Investigating Photosynthesis

Jan Van Helmont (1643)Carefully massed soil, and tree seedling and watered over 5 years. Determined most of the mass of the tree came from water.

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Investigating Photosynthesis

Joseph Priestley (1771)

Lit a candle and placed a bell jar over it, watching the flame go out.

Reasoned that there was something in the air necessary to keep the flame going.

When a plant was placed under the bell jar, discovered that the candle could be relit after several days.

Reasoned that the plant released something into the air necessary for the flame.

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Investigating Photosynthesis

Jan Ingenhousz (1779)Showed the effect observed by Priestley only occurred when plants were exposed to light.

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Investigating Photosynthesis

Julius Robert Mayer (1845)Proposed that plants convert light energy into chemical energy

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Photosynthesis Equation

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy  C6H12O6 + 6 O2

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Stages of Photosynthesis

Capture energy from sunlightConvert light energy into chemical energyUse stored chemical energy to produce organic compounds (food) from carbon dioxide

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1. Capture energy from sunlight

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1. Capture energy from sunlight

Pigments (chlorophyll) in the membranes of the thylakoids absorb light energy

Gets transferred to electrons

Electrons are replaced from water

H

+

ions are left

Remaining O from into O

2

gas as waste product

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2. Converting light energy to chemical energy

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2. Converting light energy to chemical energy

Light dependent reactions

Occurs in thylakoid membranes

Use high-energy electrons to produce two high-energy products

Convert ADP into ATP

Convert NADP+ into NADPH

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2. Converting light energy to chemical energy

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2. Converting light energy to chemical energy

Electron transport chains (ETC)

A series of molecules through which excited electrons are passed

Energy from the electrons is used to pump H+ ions across the

thylakoid

membrane

A second ETC provides energy to make NADPH, a high energy electron carrier

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2. Converting light energy to chemical energy

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2. Converting light energy to chemical energy

Production of ATP

A concentration gradient is present now for H+ ions

Passing of ions back out of the

thylakoid

provides energy to make ATP

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2. Converting light energy to chemical energy

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2. Converting light energy to chemical energy

Both ATP and NADPH are used in the next step

ATP carries necessary energy

NADPH carries high-energy electrons

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3. Use stored chemical energy to make food

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3. Use stored chemical energy to make food

Light independent reactions

Calvin Cycle is one example

Occur in

stroma

inside chloroplasts, but outside of thylakoids

Using energy from ATP and electrons from NADPH, CO

2

is fixed into sugars

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Investigating Photosynthesis

Melvin Calvin (1948)received the Nobel prize in chemistry (1961) for discovering pathways that carbon follows to make glucose in photosynthesis

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Factors that affect Photosynthesis

light intensity

CO

2

concentration

water levels

t

emperature

pH level

of water

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