Commemoration of the Reformation

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Commemoration of the Reformation




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Slide1

Commemoration of the Reformation

Parish

What was it all about???? Why did it happen???? Who was involved????

1

Slide2

The Reformation

October 31st 2017 is a significant day in the history of the Christian Church.On this day, 500 years ago, historians agree that the movement called The Reformation began.

What was THE REFORMATION?

2

Slide3

What

was The Reformation?The Reformation was a religious movement that split the Catholic Church in Europe.It set in place structures and beliefs that would spread around the world and change the Christian Church right up until the present day.

3

Slide4

What Caused The Reformation?

The causes of the Reformation go back to the 12th century.Many people were critical of the way some of the leaders – priests and bishops - of the Church lived

The Church was in need of reform but some of its leaders didn’t want to change and lose their power and riches4

Slide5

Causes of the Reformation

Some leaders of the 15th century Church led scandalously immoral livesIn the early 1400s there were 3 Popes at the one time and p

eople thought that the Church was too tied up in political matters and even warfareNepotism was rife

Some Popes, cardinals and bishops were living like

rich princes

5

Slide6

Causes of the Reformation

Some clergy sold indulgences to people telling them this would get them into heaven quickerSome men could buy positions in the ChurchSome untrained

men were being ordained as priestsSome men became priests because of greed, or ambition, or

power

rather than for

love

of Jesus

6

Slide7

The Reformation

The Reformation - also called the Protestant Reformation – was a split from the Catholic Church by certain people who called themselves

‘Reformers’Some of the main protesters were:Martin Luther - a German Catholic monkUlrich Zwingli -

a Swiss priest

Jean (John) Calvin

-

a French lawyer

Henry VIII

-

the King of England

7

Slide8

Who?? -The Main Players

Martin Luther (1483-1536) was a German professor, theologian and Augustinian Catholic monk He had concerns about certain Church practices

In October 1517 he arrived at the front door of the castle church in the city of Wittenberg and nailed up a list of 95 points he wanted to discuss. His ‘95 Theses’By this action he is credited with

starting

the

Protestant Reformation

8

Slide9

Who?? - Martin Luther

Aspects of Luther’s teaching:Scripture alone (no traditions or laws that had developed within the Church)Christ alone (no saints interceding)

Grace alone (the saving power of God)Faith alone (trust in God - pious good

works won’t get people to heaven

)

Glory alone

(glory belongs to God alone)

9

Slide10

The Catholic Church and The Reformation

Luther also stated that the Bible was the only source of revealed knowledge from God (he discounted tradition)

Many people read Luther’s 95 Theses and joined in the protest for changes in the ChurchThose who followed Luther’s

teachings

were called

Lutherans

Luther was

excommunicated

from the Church by the Pope in

1521

because of his teachings

10

Slide11

Huldrych (Ulrich) Zwingli

Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) – priest and leader of the Reformation in Switzerland.

In his ideas of reform he:Challenged the Catholic Church on the teaching and organisation of the ChurchRejected all authority of bishops

Opposed

all religious images including crucifixes

Introduced

a new liturgy to replace the Mass

Promoted

marriage of priests

Denied

the

Real Presence

in the

Eucharist

resulting in a more drastic break with the Christian tradition than Luther’s

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Slide12

Huldrych (Ulrich) Zwingli

Zwingli disagreed with Luther about some of his teachings and so began his own churchZurich was soon converted to Zwingli’s reformsMonasteries were dissolved and money used to fund education and poor reliefZwingli’s church attempted to control moral behaviour -

stricter supervision became commonTrue Christians must follow the Bible as closely as possibleZwingli preached religious war against surrounding

cantons that were Catholic

He was killed in the Battle of

Kappel

in 1531

12

Slide13

JEAN (John) Calvin

Jean (John) Calvin, a Frenchman, (1509-64) is widely credited as the most important figure in the second generation of the

Reformation. He wanted to achieve a rebuilding of the Church by abolishing:crucifixes, images, altars, liturgical

garments, the Mass,

the

organ, singing in

church, processions

, relics and sacraments

The

Eucharist

was to

be limited to

4

Sundays a

year

13

Slide14

JEAN (John) Calvin

The authorities in the Republic of Geneva supported entirely Calvin’s new code of moralsCalvin's word was of the highest authorityNo contradiction of his views or rules were toleratedCalvinism was introduced by violenceCatholic priests were banished People were compelled to attend Calvinistic sermons14

Slide15

The Reformation

The Reformation protests spread throughout many countries in Europe and also to EnglandBut the changes in England were for political reasons, rather than for religious ones………

15Crown of Henry VIII of England

Slide16

The Reformation in England

The English Reformation, (which also covered Wales and Ireland), was largely because of changes in government policy, and not because of the Catholic religion itself.

The people of England had to just accept the changes and get used to them, because it was something that the King had decreed. WHICH KING?? 16

Slide17

King Henry VIII of England

The English Reformation began in the reign of King Henry VIII (r.1509-1547)Henry wanted to divorce his first wife,

Catherine of Aragon, who was Spanish, because she had failed to give him a male heirHenry asked the Pope for a ‘dispensation’

but this was

refused

Henry decided to break ties

with

Rome and make his own

rules

to do with Church law

17

Slide18

King Henry VIII splits From rome

Henry decides he doesn’t need permission from the Pope to get a divorce. He is King – he will give himself permission

England broke away from Rome and in 1529 Henry became head of the Church of England18

Slide19

The Reformation in England

1534 - Act of Supremacy declared Henry VIII to be "Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England“Many disagreed with Henry breaking away from Rome

so Henry got rid of them1535 – He executed his Lord Chancellor - Thomas More and his Bishop - John Fisher1536

- he

executed

his

second wife

,

Anne Boleyn

, in order to marry

his third wife,

Jane

Seymour

Henry had a total of

6

wives

19

Slide20

The 

Dissolution of the Monasteries1536 - Henry abolished the monasteries and took the lands and wealth for the CrownMany landowners became very rich from the looting of the monasteries and taking over their landsThey were very happy with the changes

20

Slide21

The Great Bible

1539 – the Tyndale Bible translation was approved by Henry VIIIEvery parish in England had to purchase a copy and place it ‘for all to see and read’‘The Great Bible’

was to be read in all Church of England services21

Slide22

Henry’s son, Edward vi

1547 - Edward VI, Henry’s son, became king, aged 9,and died aged 15All images in churches were to be destroyed: stained glass; shrines; statues;

bells; paintings; crucifixesVestments were burned Chalices melted downProcessions were banned Ashes and palms prohibitedFeast days prohibited

22

Slide23

The Reformation in England

The Reformation was a very violent period in English historyHenry VIII had executed about 70 people for ‘religious reasons’ among a total of 130 political executionsFamily members fought with each other

Each side, Catholic and Protestant, was certain it was rightDeaths, burning at the

stake and

other executions

were

frequent

on

both

sides

23

23

Slide24

The Reformation response

What was the response of the Catholic Church to the Reformation?The Church responded by calling the heads of the Church to a Council to discuss the problems This Council was called the Council of Trent 24

Slide25

The Catholic Church - The C

atholic Counter ReformationThe Council of Trent met on and off from 1545-1563 - this

was the start of the Catholic Counter Reformation The Reformation in 1517 led to a 

series of religious wars

 that

finally ended

in the 

Thirty Years’ War

(1618–1648)

The

Catholic Counter Reformation

ended at the close of the

Thirty Years’

W

ar

in

1648

25

Slide26

THE COUNCIL OF TRENT

The Council of Trent made certain changes to the way things were organised in the Catholic ChurchThere was an end to the selling of indulgencesPriests’ spiritual and intellectual training would be in seminaries

Bishops were not to be selected for political reasonsA new Catechism was printed

with the Catholic teachings set out

clearly, and this is still use today

The

Roman Missal

set

out a

reformed and uniform order of the

Mass, and this is still in use this today

26

Slide27

RESULTS OF THE COUNTER REFORMATION

There was an upsurge in religious orders such as the Jesuits and the Capuchin friars There was a revival of holiness and personal devotionsInfluential mystics

such as St. Philip Neri, St Teresa of Avila and St. John of the Cross inspired many believers HOWEVER 

Many people joined the new, different churches springing up and Europe became a battlefield because of religious fighting over the years

27

Slide28

Reformed Churches

As time went on, different groups, assemblies and movements began to appear as ‘reformed’ churches.Protestantism split into ‘left wing’ and right wing’. Eventually these different groups developed into the ‘Free Churches’, assembling in their own places of worship. Membership was voluntary.28

Slide29

The Catholic Church and The Reformation

As a result of the Reformation 500 years ago there are very many different Christian churches worshipping in different ways in the world today.29

Slide30

THAT ALL MAY BE ONE

For the past fifty years the Catholic Church and the Lutheran Church have been working and talking together to overcome their differences and create a unity in Christ We realise that there is more that

unites us than divides us30I ask …..on behalf of all those who believe in me….. that they may all be one. John 17:20

LUTHERAN CHURCH

Slide31

SEE HOW THEY LOVE ONE ANOTHER

People watching the early Christians said, ‘See how they love one another!’This is what we pray will happen again with all Christians loving one another and being able to worship together.

31

Slide32

Prayer for Christian unity

Let us pray for the unity of ChristiansLord Jesus Christ, at your Last Supper you prayed to the Father that all should be one. Bring down your Holy Spirit upon all of us, your Christian followers, to lead us that we may serve you in unity.Strengthen our faith in you and help

us to love one another as you love us.3232

Slide33

Prayer for Christian unity

We pray that God, our Creator, will strengthen us, Jesus, our gracious Saviour, will guide us, and that the love of the Holy Spirit will remain in our hearts, working through us, so that all Christians may grow in understanding and peace. We ask this prayer in the name of Jesus,

our Lord. Amen.3333


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