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Does Archaeology Support . the Accuracy of the New Testament?. Jan 17, 2013. Allen . Hainline. www.OriginsDiscussion.info. Jan . 17 – Archaeological Confirmations of the New Testament (Allen). Jan 24 – Response to New Atheists (Allen). ID: 213122 Download Presentation

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Presentations text content in Reasonable Faith UTD:

Slide1

Reasonable Faith UTD:Does Archaeology Support the Accuracy of the New Testament?Jan 17, 2013Allen Hainlinewww.OriginsDiscussion.info

Slide2

Jan

17 – Archaeological Confirmations of the New Testament (Allen)Jan 24 – Response to New Atheists (Allen)Feb 7 – A skeptical look at skepticism (Beau Bishop)Feb 14 – Contradictions in the Bible (Dr. Justin Bass)Feb 21 – Prophecies in the Bible (Dr. Justin Bass)Feb 28 – Consciousness: evidence that you are a soul and that God made you (Beau)Mar 7 – Did Jesus really claim to be Divine? (Dr. Justin Bass)Mar 14 – Spring BreakMar 21 – Hume’s Argument Against Miracles (Steve Lee)March 28 – The Historical Case for Jesus’ Resurrection (Blake Giunta)April 4 – The Historical Case for Jesus’ Resurrection – Part 2(Blake Giunta)Fri April 5 – Special Event: Dr. Frank Turek speaks on “I Don’t Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist” – in auditorium ( CN 1.112), part 2 from his Sept 23 talk at UTDApril 11 – Quantum Physics – Are there any implications to Christianity? (Allen)April 18 – The Problem of Evil (Steve Lee) posted at www.OriginsDiscussion.info

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Reasonable Faith UTD

Spring 2013 Schedule

Slide3

Intro

Why important?Some critics challenge early dates of Biblical writings or eyewitness testimonyIf so, accounts could not have accurately reflected so many details verified through archaeology“The sum total of the literary, historical and archaeological evidence from the ancient world dramatically supports the New Testament record on Jesus. Those who claim it does not are sadly misinformed, tragically closed-minded, or dishonest.” Dr. Paul L. Maier, professor of Ancient History at Western Michigan“On the whole … archaeological work has unquestionably strengthened confidence in the reliability of the Scriptural record. More than one archaeologist has found his respect for the Bible increased by the experience of excavation in Palestine. Archaeology has in many cases refuted the views of modern critics.” Millar Burrows, Professor of Archaeology, Yale

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Slide4

Biblical Archaeology

What can it show?

Only a “fraction of a fraction of a fraction” remainsMost artifacts did not survive past their timeOnly a fraction of those survived 2000+ yearsLess than 2 per cent of sites have been excavatedProvides insight into Biblical culture and timesValidates accuracy/reliability of text"It may be stated categorically that no archaeological discovery has ever contradicted a biblical reference.” Nelson Glueck (highly respected Jewish archaeologist)What can’t it show?That Bible divinely inspired

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Slide5

5

Absence of Evidence is not Evidence of Absence

Many ancient historical events have no archaeological confirmation

So-called gospels that were rejected from inclusion in NT were forgeries written 100-300 years after Christ

Virtually no place names or details that could be confirmed archaeologically

Very different than New Testament!

Long history of overly skeptical

claims

refuted by archaeology

We’ll look at several examples

Slide6

NT is EYE

WITNESS TESTIMONY

historical crosshairs in the text

In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar–when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, Herod tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip tetrarch of

Iturea

and

Traconitis

, and

Lysanias

tetrarch of Abilene–during the high priesthood of

Annas

and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John son of Zechariah in the desert.”

Luke

3:1-2

Does it sound like he’s making up a story?

An exact

year can be determined (A.D

.

29)

All

8 people known

from

extra-biblical sources

All

known

to live at this exact

time

E.g.

Lysanias

previously challenged

Until inscription found at right time/place naming him as Tetrarch

Slide7

“PONTIUS PILATE PREFECT OF JUDEA”

26-37 A.D. - discovered 1961

Inscription

Translated:

The prefect of Judaea, Pontius Pilate, erected

the

Tiberium

(temple in honor of Tiberius Caesar)

to the August Gods”

Slide8

OSSUARY OF JOSEPH CAIAPHAS

High Priest 18-36 A.D. - discovered 1990

Scholars of all backgrounds believe this ossuary corresponds to the Caiaphas mentioned by Luke (who is most famous for presiding over Jewish trial of Jesus

Slide9

OTHER EYE

WITNESS TESTIMONY

numerous confirmed eyewitness details

Acts

-

84

historically-confirmed eyewitness details

.

Luke’s gospel

includes several

others

John-

59

historically-confirmed or historically probable eyewitness details

.

New Testament Documents cite more than

30 people

confirmed by secular sources or

archaeology

Slide10

31 HISTORICAL PERSONS

in the New Testament

Herod Antipas Mt. 14: Mk. 6;

Lk. 3, 23Herod Archelaus Mt. 2Herod the Gt. Mt. 2: Lk. 1Herod Philip I Mt. 14; Mk. 6Herod Philip II Lk. 3Herodias Mt. 14; Mk. 6Salome Mt. 14; Mk. 6James Acts 15; Gal. 1John the Baptist Mt. 3; Mk. 1; Lk. 3; Jn. 1Judas of Galilea Acts 5Lysanias Lk. 3Pilate Mt. 27; Mk. 15; Lk. 23; Jn. 18Quirinius Lk. 2Porcius Festus Acts 24-26Sergius Paulus Acts 13Tiberius Caesar Lk. 3

Agrippa I Acts 12

Agrippa II Acts 25

Ananias Acts 23, 24

Annas

Luke 3; Jn. 18; Acts 4

Aretas

2Cor. 11

Bernice Acts 23

Augustus

Lk

. 2

Caiaphas Mt. 26;

Lk

. 3; Jn. 11, 18; Acts 4

Claudius Acts 11, 18

Drusilla Acts 24

Egyptian

(false prophet)

Acts 21

Erastus Acts 19

Felix Acts 23

Gallio

Acts 18

Gamaliel

Acts 5

Slide11

Archaeological Confirmations of Latest Gospel (John)

John 5:2 mentions a pool with 5 porticos in Bethesda located near a Sheep GateSkeptics questioned all 3 of these features – took 5 porticos as being symbolicNow archaeologically confirmed after digging in location specified in BibleIn John 9:1-9 Jesus heals blind man - tells him to wash in the Pool of Siloam in JerusalemPool has now been discovered

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Slide12

Archaeological Finds

Refute Skeptics’ Dating

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Gospel of John

Critics: “written after 160-170 A.D.”

P52 found in 1920 in Egypt dated to 125 A.D.

Papyrus fragments of 4 verses from John

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One scrap rendered mounds of skeptical articles worthless!

Slide13

Surprising Confirmation of Incidental Details

“Erastus, who is the city’s director of public works, and our brother Quartus send you their greetings.” (Rom 16:23)In Corinth, this 1st century pavement is inscribed: “Erastus Pro Aedile S.P. Stravit” – Erastus provided pavement at his expense

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Archaeological

confirmation that

Gallio

was

proconsul in

Corinth at

in year indicated

in Acts

18

1 year tenure 51-2 AD

Slide14

14

New Testament Archaeology

Sir William Ramsay (renowned archaeologist)

Initially skeptical of NT accuracy due to supposed late authorship (2

nd

century)

Investigated for 30 years 300+ references to events, people, places, districts, official’s titles etc. (

Politarch

, Tetrarch, Archon, Proconsul, etc.)

Concluded:

"

Luke

is a historian of the first rank; not merely are his statements of fact trustworthy

... this

author should be placed along with the very greatest of historians.“

"

For

example, skeptics claimed Acts 14 wrong -

Iconium

in

Lycaonia

not

Phyrgia

Based on Cicero’s writings dealing with a slightly different time period

In 1910, Ramsay discovered an inscription declaring

Iconium

under authority of

Phyrgian

district from A.D. 37-72 (only)

Slide15

New Testament Archaeology

Census

Began by Caesar Augustus

Egyptian papyrus indicated need to return home to register

Herod Agrippa killed during speechActs 12:20-3 records being killed after accepting praise for being a godSame basic story recounted by JosephusJesus tomb was likely beneath Church of Holy Sepulchre

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Slide16

16

Early Christian Artifacts Near Jerusalem

Skeptics claim Christianity grew legendarily

Oxford historian indicates 2 generations insufficient for legends

Refuted by early Christian worshippers near Jerusalem and empty tomb

Findings from Ossuaries (Bone Boxes)

Ossuaries used primarily prior to 70 AD3 archaeologists led excavations finding Christian ossuariesClermont-Ganneau, Bagatti, SukenikSukenik (atheist Jew) dated site prior to 50 AD “World’s greatest authority on Jewish ossuaries” “All our evidence indicates that we have in this tomb the earliest records of Christianity in existence. It may also have a bearing on the historicity of Jesus and the crucifixion.”Christian symbols found (crosses, chi-rho, etc.)Critics questioned early use of symbols such as crossesHerculean cross cannot have been later than 79Cross might not be symbolic but testify to actual event

Slide17

Other Ossuary Evidence

Ossuaries found that correspond to NT figures:

Caiaphas the High Priest

Sapphira

of Acts 5

Lazarus and Martha of BethanyAlexander son of Simon of Cyrene (carried Jesus’ cross)Matthias, Joseph Barsabbas (replacement apostles -Acts 1)Simon bar Jona with cross in Christian tombJames son of Joseph brother of Jesus?Forgery charges but skeptics agree patina for “Jesus” portion ancient

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Slide18

Dead Sea Scrolls

First discovered in

1947

First scrolls sold to make leather shoes!

Some manuscripts dated as old as 3rd century BCConfirmed level of accuracy of scribes’ copyingIsaiah scroll matched exact Masoretic texts in 95% of words5% variation almost entirely spelling alterations or slips of the pen

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Masoretic Text

Oldest ~1000 AD

Slide19

Isaiah Scroll

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Slide20

20

Frank Zindler on Nazareth

“[A]t the turn of the era, there was no place called Nazareth, and we do not know when the place now called by that name became so identified. . . . Nazareth was as mythical as the Mary, Joseph, and Jesus family that was supposed to have lived there.” —Frank Zindler, “Where Jesus Never Walked,” American Atheist 36 (1996-7), pp. 33-42.

Slide21

21

A Jewish archaeologist on recent excavations in Nazareth

“The discovery is of the utmost importance since it reveals for the very first time a house from the Jewish village of Nazareth and thereby sheds light on the way of life at the time of Jesus. The building that we found is small and modest and it is most likely typical of the dwellings in Nazareth in that period.” Yardenna Alexandre, excavation director for Israeli Antiquities Authority, “For the Very First Time: A Residential Building from the Time of Jesus was Exposed in the Heart of Nazareth” (12/21/09)

Slide22

Nazareth Decree

Claimed to have been found in Nazareth in 1878Imperial decree proclaiming death penalty for tomb robbersSome scholars date to time period of Emperor Claudius (41-54 A.D.) but possible range of dates is from 14-70Based on reference to Caesar and Jewish burial practicesMay have been inspired by growing movement that believed in resurrection of JesusAnd Jewish story that body stolen from tombSome scholars skeptical of connection to Jesus but the timing and location seem significantConsider that Nazareth was a tiny town not even mentioned by Josephus despite references to 50-60 other townsEstimated 50 houses in 1st century Nazareth Based on number of tombs

22

Slide23

23

Robert M. Price on Synagogues in Capernaum

“A major collision between the gospel tradition and archaeology concerns the existence of synagogues … in pre-70 C.E. Galilee.” Robert M. Price, The Incredible Shrinking Son of Man (2003), p. 14 Zindler also skeptical of this …

Slide24

24

Implications of Gospel statements

Luke suggests

that

synagogue

at Capernaum was a particularly impressive structure

requiring

considerable

construct

ion costs

Other passages in

Gospels

(e.g. Mark 1, Matthew 4) make it plain that Capernaum was Jesus’ principal base of operations in

Galilee

Have the Gospel authors been caught in a huge mistake?

Slide25

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1st Century Synagogue Found in Capernaum

“The first-century Capernaum synagogue in which Jesus preached has probably been found. Because more than one synagogue may have existed in Capernaum at this time, we cannot be sure that this new find was Jesus’ synagogue. But this recently discovered first-century building is certainly a likely candidate. . . . The conclusion that this was a first-century A.D. synagogue seems inescapable.” James F. Strange and Hershel Shanks, “Synagogue Where Jesus Preached Found at Capernaum,” Biblical Archaeology Review 9 (1983)Unusually thick walls and much larger floor plan than other synagogues

Slide26

Next Week: Responding to the New AtheistsWho are the New Atheists?What are there claims and arguments?www.OriginsDiscussion.info

Slide27

Backup Charts

27

Slide28

CRUCIFIXION VICTIM 1

ST CENTURY A.D.

discovered in Jerusalem

Slide29

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Excavations at Capernaum

Trench 25 at Capernaum, showing: Limestone walls of the 4th or 5th century synagogue (A), Basalt wall of the 1st century synagogue (B), and Cobbled pavement of the 1st century synagogue (C)

Slide30

30

The synagogue at Capernaum

The walls of the 1

st

century synagogue at Capernaum are unusually thick—well over a meter—and its floor plan shows it to have been a building with an interior space of nearly 450 square meters, larger than most 1

st

century synagogues discovered elsewhere in Galilee.

This fits very well with the implication in Luke 7:1-5 that

this

synagogue was particularly magnificent.

Slide31

Lee

Strobel notes that “Skeptics have been asserting for a long time that Nazareth never existed during the time when the New Testament says Jesus spent his childhood there.”[23] For example, “atheist Frank Zindler noted that Nazareth is not mentioned in the Old Testament, by the apostle Paul, by the Talmud (although sixty-three other Galilean towns are cited), or by Josephus (who listed forty-five other villages and cities of Galilee, including Japha, which was located just over a mile from present-day Nazareth. No ancient historians or geographers mention Nazareth before the beginning of the fourth century.”[24] However, Paul Barnett reports that “in 1961 a mosaic dated from the third century in which Nazareth appears was unearthed in Caesarea Maritima. Nazareth … is not mentioned in the Old Testament, nor in Josephus’s work. Questions as to its genuineness were resolved by this discovery.”[25] Dr James Strange notes that “when Jerusalem fell in AD 70, priests were no longer needed in the temple because it had been destroyed, so they were sent to various other locations, even up into Galilee. Archaeologists have found a list in Aramaic describing the twenty-four ‘courses’, or families, of priests who were relocated, and one of them was registered as having been moved to Nazareth.”[26]Moreover: “archaeological digs … have uncovered first-century tombs in the vicinity of Nazareth, which would establish the village’s limits because by Jewish law burials had to take place outside the town proper. Two tombs contained objects such as pottery lamps, glass vessels, and vases from the first, third, or fourth centuries.”[27] Archaeologist Jack Finegan states that “From the tombs … it can be concluded that Nazareth was a strongly Jewish settlement in the Roman period.”[28]

31

Slide32

Note from Craig Evans book

At one time it was fashionable to assert that the early Christian confession of Messiah Jesus as ‘Son of God’ arose not from Jewish and Old Testament antecedents (2 Sam. 7.14; Ps. 2.2, 7, for example) but from the influence of the Greco-Roman world, where Greek kings and Roman emperors were hailed as sons of the gods. The discovery of 4Q246, comprising two columns of Aramaic text from Qumran’s fourth cave, demolished this view. The author of this first-century BCE text anticipated the coming of a deliverer who will be called ‘Son of God’ and ‘Son of the Most High’. The remarkable parallels to the language of the annunciation (Luke 1.31–35)Other minimalists have suggested that there were no synagogue buildings in the time of Jesus; that the New Testament Gospels, which refer to these buildings, are anachronistic. As we shall see, archaeological discoveries have demolished this position.

32

Slide33

Early Attestation of Jesus Being Worshipped

Alexamenos

GraffitoThis piece of graffiti, from near the Palatine Hill in Rome and rather roughly dated to late in the second-century AD, was apparently drawn by one Roman soldier to mock the faith of a fellow soldier who was a Christian. It shows a man standing by a crucifixion victim with the head of a donkey. The Greek caption reads: “Alexamenos worships [his] God”.

33

Slide34

Shroud of Turin

Wrist wounds not located in palms as depicted in Medieval timesArt historian Phillip McNair states that not one of hundreds of depictions portrays wounds on wristsPierced scalp covers entire skullVery different than medieval expectationsAbnormal for crucifixion victimDecent burial with clothSide wound (post-mortem flow of blood and water) rather than broken legsBody wrapped in shroud didn’t decomposethe body does not appear to have been moved by conventional means, either, due to the condition of the bloodstains, which are anatomically correct, including precisely outlined borders, with blood clots intact. If the cloth had been pulled away from the body, the blood clots would have smeared or broken.Kinds of things faked would not be important in medieval timeshttp://www.case.edu.au/images/uploads/03_pdfs/williams-shroud-turin.pdf

34

Slide35

Top Ten New Testament Archaeological Finds of the Past 150 Years"How do shrouds, boats, inscriptions, and other artifacts better help us understand the Christ of the Ages?"

http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2003/septemberweb-only/9-22-21.0.html?start=3

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Slide36

Contrast Bible with Book of MormonThe latter has no arch. confirmation

http://www.bethinking.org/other-religions/beginner/what-to-say-to-mormons---ch-3-mormon.htm

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Slide37

Capernaum sites

Simon Peter’s houseSynagogue where Jesus taughtArtemis of the Ephesians statue found (Acts 19)Erastus (city treasurer of Corinth mentioned in Rom 16:23)Inscription found in road in Corinth (bottom left)

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New Testament Archaeology

Slide38

Capernaum sites

Simon Peter’s houseSynagogue where Jesus taughtJericho problemMark 10:46 – healed beggar as Jesus was leaving JerichoLuke 18:35 - healed beggar as Jesus was approaching JerichoArchaeology has revealed that there were 2 Jericho’s in Jesus’ timeJesus could have visited both towns, beggar at entrance to richer townArtemis of the Ephesians statue found (Acts 19)Skeptics once claimed Pontius Pilate never existedInscription found in Caesarea (top right)Erastus (city treasurer of Corinth mentioned in Rom 16:23)Inscription found in road in Corinth (bottom left)

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New Testament Archaeology

Slide39

The Greek term translated here as ‘city officials’ is

politarchs. Since the term doesn’t appear in classical literature, “Critics of the New Testament asserted for many years that Luke was mistaken in his use of the term ‘politarchs’ … for the officials of Thessalonica…”[13] However, an inscription using this term was found on a first-century AD arch torn down in 1867.

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Slide40

Cave 4

40

Slide41

“For Acts the confirmation of

historicity is overwhelming… Any attempt to reject its basic historicity must now appear absurd. Roman historians have long taken it for granted.”Roman historian A. N. Sherwin-White, Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament, p. 189

Scholars say:

Acts Is Historically Accurate

Peter Baptizing Centurion

Slide42

“I began with a mind unfavorable to it [Acts]… but more recently I found myself brought into contact with the book of Acts as an authority for the topography, antiquities, and society of Asia Minor. It was gradually borne in upon me that in various details the narrative showed marvelous truth.”

Archaeologist William Ramsey, St. Paul the Traveler and Roman Citizen, p. 8

Scholars say:

Acts Is Authoritative

Painting of Luke by Andrea Mantegna (1431)

Slide43

“In Extraordinary ways, modern archaeology has affirmed the historical core of the Old and New

testaments—corroborating key points of the stories of Israel’s patriarchs, the Exodus, the Davidic monarchy, and the life and times of Jesus.”Jeffery Sheler, “Is the Bible True” U.S. News & World Report, October 25th,1999, 52

SCHOLARS SAY:

The Bible Is Supported By Archeology

Dead Sea Scroll, 2

nd

century

bc

Slide44

Jon Rittenhouse – Can the Bible Really Be Trusted? Podcast is really helpful starting at about min 35

Luke’s historical accuracyNo tetrarch …Ramsay (skeptic) greatest archaeology …

44

Slide45

Old Testament Archaeology - Backup

45

Slide46

Old Testament Archaeology

Old Testament shown to be unique:

Documents non-flattering aspects

Countless cases where skeptics proven wrong by later findingsHittites – 19th century critics questioned whether or not such a people even existedCountless Hittite artifacts now knownWho was the last king of Babylon?Critics said book of Daniel incorrect in claiming it was Belshazzar because Herodotus indicated it was Nabonidus; “Belshazzar made up”Artifacts found indicating Belshazzar was Nabonidus’ son and was in charge while his father was away for several years from Babylon

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Slide47

Flood Archaeology

Ancient Flood Stories

Every continent had flood stories

South America: IncasNorth America: Iroquois, AztecsEurope: CeltsAfrica: Hottentots (Southern Africa)Asia: Babylonians, Sumerians, Hindus, Burma(Myanmar)Oceania: New Guinea, Aborigines, New ZealandSimilarity to Biblical account is proportional to separation in time and space

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Slide48

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Jericho

Joshua 6: Jericho walls came down, city burned but not looted

“The walls fell outwards … This is remarkable … the city walls always fall inward, not outward.” Garstang “The city's walls had fallen in a way suggestive of sudden collapse. A thick layer of soot at the site … supports the biblical idea that the city was burned, not simply conquered. “ Says Wood: "It looks to me as though the biblical stories are correct.“ Time Magazine Score One for the BibleEstimated date consistent with Exodus dateC14 dates to ~1400 BC (exact right time frame)Burned artifacts recovered indicating no looting of city (very unusual!)Found large stores of grainNo long siegeUnusual time of attack matched Biblical account

Slide49

Old Testament Archaeology

Tophets

Liberal disbelieved Biblical accounts of child sacrifice

Despite Greek and Roman historical accounts concerning this also20,000 Phoenician urns uncovered of young childrenIncluded animals in sacrifice, inscriptions like “Given to fulfill a vow”Hazor – Joshua’s Conquest? – heads of idols chopped off“Everyone is a potential destroyer of Hazor, if not mentioned in any document, except those specifically mentioned in the Bible as having done so.” – YadinNo other ancient peoples would degrade idolsTablet Fragment found mentioning king ofHazor by same name as Biblical account

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Slide50

Old Testament Historical Validation

Sennacherib’s Prism – Assyrian king admits failure to conquer Jerusalem just as Bible records (King Hezekiah prayed for deliverance)

Conquered 46 out of 47 cities

Seems miraculous that tiny Judah could survive against mighty Assyria!Cyrus Cylinder – records King Cyrus of Persia’s Babylonian conquest and his decree to allow captives to return & restore templesSkeptics questioned whether any ruler would allow this

50

Slide51

Archaeology of Early Israel

Amarna Letters

Letters to Pharaoh about Habiru invaders in Palestine in 14

th century BCMerneptah SteleRecords a Pharoah’s victory over Israel in 13th century BCWord used for Israel corresponds to people group but not nationConsistent with status during this time period of Judges

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