Castes were the central feature of people's identities in . ancient India. . But the caste system is not completely dead in India today.. There are different theories about the establishment of the caste system. .
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Castes were the central feature of people's identities in
But the caste system is not completely dead in India today.Slide3
There are different theories about the establishment of the caste system.
There are religious theories and there are historical theories.Slide4
According to a story in the Rig Veda,
a Hindu religious text, the original human, Purush, destroyed himself to create all of the rest of human society. The different Varnas (castes) were created from different parts
of his body.Slide5
The Brahmans were created from his head; the Kshatrias from his hands;
the Vaishias from his thighs and the Sudras from his feet.
The caste system’s hierarchy is determined by the descending order
of the different organs
from which humans were created. Slide6
The social historical theory explains the caste system beginning with the arrival of the Aryans in India. The fair skinned Aryans arrived in India from south Europe
and north Asia.Slide7Slide8
Before the Aryans arrived, other ethnic communities
lived in India. Among them were Negro, Mongoloid, Austroloid, and Dravidian (Mediterrean.)Slide9
The Aryans who conquered and took control over parts of north India subdued the locals and made them their servants.Slide10
The Aryans disregarded the local cultures,
and at the same time pushed the local people southwards or towards the jungles and mountains
in north India.
In order to secure their status the Aryans established sets of social and religious rules
which allowed only them to be the priests, warriors and the businessmen of the society.Slide12
The dominant Aryans gave themselves and their allies special rights and privileges
that other ethnic groups
People assigned to different castes could not eat together, be educated together, marry, or even travel together on public transportation.Slide14
The most powerful caste was the Brahmans- the priests
and political leaders. Slide15
The Aryan conquerors belonged
to this caste.Slide16
Beneath these were the Kshatriya, or warriors, also Aryans who made their careers in the military.Slide17
Beneath them were the Vaishyas,
or traders and landowners, who were als members of Aryan society.Slide18
The lowest of the castes was the shudras - the servants
and farmhands from the native tribes and
They did not own their own their own land, but were forced to work
Beneath all castes was the group known as the “Untouchables” -
delegated the worst jobs,
like cleaning up the gutters, collecting garbage,
cleaning up human waste, and burying the dead.Slide22
The untouchables call themselves Dalit, meaning “depressed.”Slide23
Until the late 1980s they were called Harijan, meaning “children of God.” This title was given to them by Mahatma Gandhi who fought for Indian society
to accept untouchables as equals.Slide24
Legally the government has banned the caste system, but in reality it allows discrimination of the lower classes.Slide25
The untouchablity feature of Indian society is seen
by many as one of the strongest racist phenomenon
in the world. Slide26
The untouchables have few rights
In various parts of India they are treated in different ways, but in most regions the attitude towards the untouchables is still harsh and strict.Slide27
Some Indians have become more flexible in their caste system customs. In general the urban people in India are less strict about the caste system than the rural.
In cities one can see different caste people mingling with each other, while in some rural areas there is still discrimination based on castes. Slide29
In modern India new tensions are created because of
“positive discrimination” policies.
The high caste communities feel discriminated by government policies which reserve positions and jobs for the lower classes.Slide30
According to government policy,
15% of the government jobs and
15% of the students admitted to universities must be from lower castes.Slide31
Sometimes in order to fill the quota, candidates from the lower classes are accepted even though they are not qualified.Slide32
Still, the lower classes are about 50% of India's population, but only 27% of government jobs are reserved for them.Slide33
Most of the communities who were low in the caste hierarchy remain low in the social order even today. Slide34
The degrading jobs are still done by the Dalits,Slide35
And communities who were high in the social hierarchy remain so…Slide36
INDIA’S CASTES - Description
Castes were the central feature of peoples identities in ancient India But the caste system is not completely dead in India today There are different theories about the establishment of the caste system ID: 234910 Download Presentation
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