The Occupational Therapy PowerPoint Presentation
Pre-Driving Clinical Assessment. Judith Joseph, OTR, MA, CDRS. email@example.com. TOTA MCC. November 6, 2014. Objectives. Develop an occupational profile that addresses the client’s driving needs.. ID: 526615Embed code:
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The Occupational Therapy Pre-Driving Clinical Assessment
Judith Joseph, OTR, MA, CDRS
November 6, 2014Slide2
Develop an occupational profile that addresses the client’s driving needs.
Select specific evidence-based assessments and assessment methods to assist in determining driving readiness.
Using the information gathered from the occupational profile, assessments, and goals determine the need to refer client’s to the DRS.
Gain knowledge in the laws and agencies in the state of Texas that determine driving fitness to assist OT practitioners in establishing treatment plans and goals.Slide3
About the speaker
Introduced to clinical driving evaluations in 1987
Attended my first ADED conference in 1989?
Developed a pre-driving clinical screen and evaluation in 2010
Passed CDRS exam August 2013Slide4
“So, what are you going to do about driving?”Slide5
Why should occupational therapist evaluate fitness to drive?Slide6
Things to consider
There are 20 million drivers in the U.S. 70 and older.
Every year, more than
in the United States have a stroke.
400,000 individuals estimated to have
Approximately 60,000 Americans are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease each year, and this number does not reflect the thousands of cases that go undetected
One in four adults−approximately 61.5 million
experiences mental illness in a given
Approximately two million Americans have mild low vision which affects driving and reading.Slide7
Why Should OT evaluate fitness to drive?
Because driving is an instrumental activity of daily living within the domain of occupational therapy practice. practitioners should be able to accurately determine who is a safe driver, who is at risk for unsafe driving, and who needs further evaluation by a driving rehabilitation specialist (DRS).
AOTA Driving and Community MobilitySlide8
Occupational Therapy Roles
Generalist: general knowledge and understanding of performance and processing skills related to driving.Advanced Training: Further education to evaluate the integration of sub-skills associated with driving and provide specific sub-skill trainingSpecialized Training: Received specialized education, examination, and/or certification.
University of FloridaSlide9
What is in our domain of practice?
Consider the diagnosis and resulting impairmentSlide11
Medical condition examples
Sleep apneaTBICVA Dementia/Alzheimer’s MS
Impaired arousal, responsiveness, daytime sleepinessAttention, orientation, visual fieldVisual, cog, motor, visual fieldExecutive functionsMuscle weakness, sensory loss, fatigue, cognitive or perceptual deficits, symptoms of optic neuritis
Sherrilene Classen, Miriam Monahan ADED Conference 2013Slide12
Let’s Start with the law!
Texas Medical Advisory Board (MAB)
The Texas Medical Advisory Board (MAB) for Driver Licensing was established in 1970 to advise
Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS) in the licensing of persons having medical limitations
might adversely affect driving.
Guidelines established using the following:
AMA Physician’s Guide for Determining Driver Limitation
Driver Fitness Medical Guidelines (NHTSA)
The American Association of Motor Vehicle AdministratorsSlide14
Texas Medical Advisory Board/DPS
The ultimate goal is to allow all who can drive safely to do so and to continue to reduce the number and severity of motor vehicle accidents in
Functional Ability Profiles
General DebilityCardiovascular diseaseSyncopeNeurological DisordersPsychiatric DisordersExcessive Alcohol use/abuseDrug use/abuseMetabolic DiseasesMusculoskeletal DefectsEye Defects
CVA, Seizures, Dementia
MS, Parkinson's, Peripheral neuropathy
Diplopia, Peripheral vision
Where do I start?Slide17
The Association For Driver Rehabilitation Specialists (ADED)Slide18
ADED Mission Statement
Promoting excellence in the field of driver rehabilitation in support of safe, independent community mobilitySlide19
ADED Best Practices For The Delivery of Driver Rehabilitation Services
Section 1: Interview/Medical HistorySection 2: Clinical Visual AssessmentSection 3: Clinical Physical AssessmentSection 4: Clinical Cognitive Assessment
History of Present Illness
Past Medical History
Determine medical consent
Review current medications (side effects)
Assess communication status
Review driving history
Clinical Visual Assessment
Visual historyVisual acuity Field of visionOther visual skills
Cataracts, glaucoma, HH, etc.
Visual short term memory, figure ground, form constancy, visual discrimination, visual scanning skills, High/Low contrast sensitivitySlide22
Visual Assessments and Observations
biVABA Brain Injury Visual Assessment Battery for Adults The cover test UFOV Useful Field of ViewDynavisionMotor Free Visual Perception Test (MFVPT)Clock drawing testTrails B Pursuits and Saccades
Bumping into walls, furniture, etc.
Head tilting or position
Position of test paper
Visual scanning efficiencySlide23
Clinical Physical Assessment
Range of MotionStrengthGrip strengthPrehension statusSensationProprioceptionCoordination (rapid pace walk)Muscle tone (MAS)
Mobility status (TUG)
Reaction times (
Clinical Cognitive Assessment
Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE)
Short Blessed Test
Clinical Dementia Rating Scale
Montreal Cognitive Assessment (
Maze Navigation Test
Single Digit Modality Test (SDMT)
Assessment of Motor Processing Skills (AMPS)Slide25
Case Study 1: CVA
76 y/o male with R MCA infarct, s/p thrombectomy, left hemiparesis, DM-2, HTN, BPH, small tear in left supraspinatus.
+ multiple falls
Wants to run errands and drive to any appointments
h/o getting lost while driving when blood sugar is uncontrolled
Backed into parked car in grocery store parking lot
Totaled a vehicle 6-7 years ago
Has not driven since onset of strokeSlide26
Case Study 1 continued: CVA test results
Impaired left peripheral vision
Rapid pace walk= 10 sec.
Impaired head/neck flexibility
Visual closure, mild impairment
Trail Making B Test- 111sec.
UFOV- unable to complete. Could not see 2
Multiple angry outburst during testingSlide27
Case Study 1: recommendations
Referred to U of H low vision clinic by Neuro-ophthalmologist
Complete program at U of H prior to attempting to drive or being referred to CDRS for BWT only after being cleared by Ophthalmologist
Consider driving cessationSlide28
Case Study 2: Parkinson’s Disease
91 y/o male with h/o Parkinson’s Disease, loss of balance, peripheral neuropathy, spinal stenosis, lumbar laminectomy
+ multiple falls
Using walker with seat
Last eye exam 2-3 years ago
History of falling asleep spontaneously
“minor” accident in parking lot when he could not stop in time when another vehicle pulled out in front of him causing a rear end collision
Totaled a car 3
ago when he backed out of the driveway
Wants to cont. driving without restrictionsSlide29
Case Study 2: Test results
High low contrast sensitivity intact
Failed cover test
Bells Test 3:57 sec.
Trails B test 161 sec.
Right ankle strength 2/5, hip/knee strength 3/5
Limited head/neck flexibility
Unable to locate 50% items on UFOV
Fell asleep during testing
Rapid pace walk= 36 sec.
Scored 100% on sign recognition, map reading (items 14-24 on MFVPT)Slide30
Case Study 2: Recommendations
Patient should not resume driving without a BWT.
High risk for having a crash
Consider driving cessationSlide31
Case Study 3: Left Hip fracture
82 y/o female with dx of left hip
Has trouble looking over her shoulder, difficulty backing up, and has gotten lost while driving
Wants to be able to drive to the store, etc. She does not plan on driving on the freeway or at night.
She has not driven in 6 months since hip surgerySlide32
Case Study 3: Test Results
Mild impairment of low contrast vision
Mild impairment of working memory
Impaired visual closure
Trails Making B test: 353 seconds
Impaired visual processing speed
Rapid pace walk- 17 seconds
No errors on clock drawing test
Impaired head/neck flexibilitySlide33
Case Study 3: Recommendations
Further assessment through BWT
Referral to optometristSlide34
Case Study 4: MS
57 y/o female diagnosed with MS. Referred due to recent black out.
h/o ventricular tachycardia, osteoporosis, cataracts, severe scoliosis
Wears built up right shoe for leg length discrepancy and R AFO
Gets lost while driving, trouble finding and reading signs in time to respond, feeling tired after driving, had “near misses”, bothered by head light glare, trouble looking over shoulder when backing up.
Recently hit a pole at the drive through bank and backed into trash cans at the end of her driveway.Slide35
Case Study 4: Test Results
Impaired visual acuity20/50 in left eye
High low contrast intact
No deficits noted with visual closure
Trials Making B test 73 seconds
Mild deficit with visual processing speed on UFOV
Mild deficit with working memory
No errors on clock drawing test
Rapid pace walk 5.8 seconds
Right shoulder flex limited to 90
Limited head/neck flexibility
3+/5 strength in
hips, and ankles
Became fatigued during testSlide36
Case Study 4: Recommendations
Begin to seek alternative transportation if deficits worsen
Use power chair instead of RW for appointments to conserve energy
Do not drive on unfamiliar trips
Do not drive when fatigued
Consult with MD
Referral to PT
Referral to CDRS for BWTSlide37
Case Study 5: Impaired memory
73 year old female with dx of impaired memory.
Unable to recall last eye exam
Had one speeding ticket
Wears a hearing aid (not wearing during exam)
Admits to getting lost while driving, feels others drive too fast, being stressed out by driving, difficulty at busy intersections, friends will no longer ride with her.Slide38
Case Study 5: Test Results
20/25 binocular vision
Impaired horizontal fixation to right
Bells Test: 1:54, 3 errors
Rapid pace walk- 6 seconds
Scored 14 on the Short Blessed
Trials Making B Test 194 seconds
Intact visual closure, visual processing speed showed mild deficitSlide39
Case Study 5: Recommendations
Driving should be restricted at best to her immediate neighborhood, however without being able to control what happens such as weather conditions, and changes in traffic volumes driving cessation may need to be considered. If family insist on pt. continuing to drive a referral to CDRS for BWT should be completed.Slide40
I am not the decider!Slide41