Free Cash Flow PowerPoint Presentation
Corporate Finance: MBAC 6060. Professor Jaime Zender. SCF Basics. SCF is a summary of a company’s transactions for a given period that effect the cash account.. It provides information about the firm’s ability to generate cash and the effectiveness of its cash management. Where is cash coming .... ID: 146726Embed code:
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Free Cash Flow
Corporate Finance: MBAC 6060
Professor Jaime ZenderSlide2
SCF is a summary of a company’s transactions for a given period that effect the cash account.
It provides information about the firm’s ability to generate cash and the effectiveness of its cash management. Where is cash coming from and where is it going to?
SCF is derived from the income statement for the period and (at least) the two balance sheets surrounding the period.
Cash is the “life blood” of the firm so the SCF can be an important diagnostic tool and provide insight into which financial ratios should be calculated to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the firm.
Cash flow information is commonly viewed as a (the) crucial piece of information for assessing the firm and its financial health by outside audiences.Slide3
The generic structure of the SCF is:
Cash provided (used) by operating activities.
Basic running of the business, how fast cash comes in versus how fast it goes out. Tells us about how
investments are generating cash.
Cash provided (used) by investing activities.
Cash provided (used) by financing activities.
Raising new capital/retiring old, significant sources/uses of cash.
Foreign exchange adjustments (we will largely ignore)
Increase (decrease) in cash.
Cash – beginning of the period.
Cash – end of the period
Start with: Net Income (from Operations)
Add: Depreciation & Amortization
in Deferred Income Tax
Total to find: Cash flow from OperationsSlide5
Acquisitions of fixed assets are (generally) cash outflows.
Sales of fixed assets (net of any tax implications) are (generally) cash inflows.
Acquisitions of (LT) financial assets are outflows.
Sales/Maturities of financial assets are inflows.
The net is Cash flow from Investing Activities.Slide6
Add the amounts of newly issued long-term or short-term debt.
Subtract the amount of long-term or short-term debt retired.
Subtract the amount of stock
Add the amount of new stock issues.
Subtract total amount of dividends paid.
Total is cash flow from financing activities.Slide7Slide8Slide9Slide10Slide11Slide12Slide13
Free Cash Flow
While the SCF is a good diagnostic tool, it does not present information in a form useful for valuation purposes.
Valuation does not focus on the change in the cash account as is done on the SCF. Cash on hand is really just another asset.
Recall our basic valuation equation. We need forecasts of all future cash flow expected to be generated from
owning a firm or an asset more generally. So we introduce
The cash flow that would be generated by a firm
be available to be dispersed to its
the firm were all equity financed.
The cash flow of a company measured after it has collected its revenues, paid it expenses, and makes all investments (LT & ST) necessary to implement it’s business strategy –
it were entirely equity financed.
It is important to note that free cash flow is an enterprise level concept. In practice, we use it (in combination with an appropriate discount rate) to value a firm or asset.Slide14
The most theoretically correct cash flow figure to use in DCF valuation is (some variant of) Free Cash Flow.FCF:Start with: Net Income (from Operations)Add back: Depreciation & AmortizationSubtract: Change in non-cash oper. NWCAdd: Change in deferred income tax (often ignored)Subtract: Change in required cash (if any)Subtract: Net Capital ExpendituresAdd: After tax interest = (1-Tc)Interest Exp.
Note: this is really free cash flow from operations, we are ignoring any non-operating
cash flows not contained in Net Cap
Net income is a reasonable place to start. It measures, in an accounting sense, what the existing assets are generating.
Net income, however, is not a measure of any kind of cash flow (it is specifically designed
to be), so clearly we need to make adjustments.
Off income statement expenditures.
The most obvious problem with using net income to capture cash flow is that non-cash expenses have been deducted and non-cash revenues/gains may have been included.
The largest (commonly) is depreciation (and in the past, amortization of goodwill).
In order to help turn net income into free cash flow we have to add (subtract) such expenses (revenues) back into (from) net income.Slide17
Revenue is booked when sales are made. This is true regardless of whether the sale is for cash or credit (i.e. whether the cash came in or not).
To find cash flow we want to reflect any (and only) sales that actually generated cash (obvious).
We could count only cash sales but what cash inflow would that miss?
It’s the timing of credit sales that are the problem.
We correct by subtracting (why subtract?) the
in accounts receivable.Slide18
Expenses work similarly.
Expenses are booked even if we only record an accounts payable rather than an actual cash outflow.
We correct by
in accounts payable.
The shortcut we use to deal with lots of these corrections at once is to
the change in non-cash operating NWC
. Why do we subtract this change?Slide19
Commonly, there are three tax accrual accounts that tell us the difference between “allowance for income taxes” (public books) and actual cash taxes paid (tax books).
is a short term asset account,
is a short term liability, and
is a long term liability (occasionally you see a 4
, deferred tax assets).
We can change “book” taxes to “cash” taxes by adding the change in the asset account(s) and subtracting the changes in the liability accounts to “allowance for income taxes.”
However, commonly taxes paid is not the goal, rather it is free cash flow. The two short term accounts are dealt with via the change in NWC so we only have to add the change in deferred taxes to net income to finish with tax accruals.
Conceptually these are non-current operating assets and liabilities but I break them out to highlight their importance.Slide20
Off Income Statement Flows
An expense we want to take out of free cash flow that isn’t reflected on the income statement is net capital expenditures.
We added back the reflection of past expenditures that appears on the income statement (depreciation) but we want to make sure that all valuable investments are made so that free cash flow is what is left
accounting for investments necessary for the efficient operation of the firm.
We could find this value for last period from the statement of cash flow in the investment cash flow section once we ignore the financial asset transactions.
Future values can be estimated by the anticipated change in gross fixed assets over the period (or the change in net fixed assets plus the period’s depreciation expense).Slide21
A final thing that was taken out of net income that should be included in free cash flow is interest payments.
We don’t want it removed from free cash flow because interest
a cash flow that
(commonly: cash versus non-cash interest) was actually paid to contributors of capital by the firm. Clearly this should be part of what we call free cash flow for the period.
Thus add interest expense back into net income.Slide22
Taxes For The All Equity Firm
The “what if” part of the definition.
The big difference between the taxes paid by an all equity financed firm and a firm that also uses debt financing is that a firm using debt pays interest.
The payment of interest expense generates a tax deduction.
For each dollar of interest paid the firm saves $1
is the firm’s marginal corporate tax rate.
Thus the total tax savings that an all equity firm
have received (that the firm using debt did receive) is $
We thus want to
this from net income to find free cash flow.Slide23
After Tax Interest
A shortcut commonly used in calculating free cash flow is that we add “after tax” interest.
This takes care of “putting interest back” into net income and “adjusting taxes” for the “what if” part of the exercise all at once.
In other words, adding back interest and subtracting the interest tax shield sequentially from net income effectively adds after tax interest to net income: +$Interest –
$Interest = +(1-t
Start with: Net Income (from Operations)
Add back: Depreciation & Amortization
Add: Change in deferred income tax (often ignored)
in required cash (if any)
Add: After tax interest = (1-T
200520062007Sales5,780.006,358.006,993.80Cost of goods sold2,832.203,115.423,426.962GSA Expense1,267.001,353.701,449.07Depreciation320.00320.00320.00Other Expenses480.00480.00480.00EBIT880.801,088.881,317.768Interest150.80150.80150.80EBT730.00938.081,166.968Taxes248.20318.947396.769Net Income481.80619.133770.199
Simple Income Statements
Tax rate is 34%Slide26
200520062007Assets Cash1,043.241,829.6462,734.015Accounts Receivable1,734.001,907.4002,098.14Inventory1,156.001,271.6001,398.76Total Current Assets3,933.244,688.6466,230.915Gross PP&E3,200.003,200.003,200.00Accumulated Depr640.00960.001,280.00Net PP&E2,560.002,240.001,920.00Other Assets1,820.001,820.001,820.00Total Assets8,313.249.068.6469,970.915 Liabilities and O. Equity Accounts Payable1,734.001,907.402,098.14Wages Payable867.00953.701,049.07Bank Loan000Total Current Liabilities2,601.002,861.103,147.21LT Debt2,800.002,800.002,800.00Common Stock1,000.001,000.001,000.00Retained Earnings1,912.242,407.5463,023.705Total Liabilities and OE8,313.249,068.6469,970.915
Simple Balance SheetsSlide27
Alternatively, FCF can be estimated as:
) = unlevered NI
Add Depreciation & Amortization
Subtract Change in non-cash operating NWC
Subtract Change in required Cash
Add the change in Deferred Income Taxes
Subtract Net Capital Expenditures
What crap! You haven’t started from the same figure, you haven’t added back interest, how can this be the same?
Be sure you fully understand why. Think of alternative ways of finding FCF, it is instructive.
For example, how would you find FCF from the SCF?Slide28
Your text book (for example, see chapter 8) calculates FCF as:EBIT(1-Tc)Add DepreciationSubtract Change in NWCSubtract Net Cap ExorSlide29
FCF from SCF
Start with Cash Flow from Operations
Add back interest expense
Subtract the interest tax shield
Cash Flow from Operations
Subtract the change in required cash (investment)
Subtract Net Capital Expenditures (investment)
Giving (unlevered) Free Cash FlowSlide30
Free Cash Flow to Equity
It may be the case that your purpose is to find the value of a firm’s equity rather than the value of the firm itself.
One way to accomplish this is to identify the free cash flow that “belongs” to the equityholders (FCFE) and value the equity directly from that measure of cash flow (in combination with an appropriate discount rate).
To do this we start with free cash flow and “strip out” the cash flows that will go to or come from other claimants.Slide31
Free Cash Flow to Equity
Start with (unlevered) Free Cash Flow
Subtract (cash) interest paid
Add the interest tax shield
Free Cash Flow or CCF
Subtract preferred stock dividends (if any)
Add the change in debt financing
Add the change in preferred stock financing
Reconciling with SCF
Accountants being who and what they are:
If we start with FCFE
Subtract common stock dividends
Add the change in equity financing
This equals the change in excess cash
Add the change in required cash
This equals the
change in the cash balanceSlide33
FCF Challenge Question-34% taxSlide34
FCF Challenge QuestionSlide35
FCF Challenge Question