Chapter 5

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Chapter 5




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Chapter 5Food Storing and Issuing Control

Principles of Food, Beverage, and Labour Cost Controls,

Second Canadian Edition

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Learning Objectives

5.1 List and explain three causes of unplanned costs that can develop while food is in storage.5.2 List and explain five principal concerns that can be addressed by implementing standards for storing food.5.2.1 Explain the importance of establishing standards for storage temperatures for foods, storage containers for foods, shelving, and cleanliness of storage facilities.5.2.2 Identify optimum storage temperatures for the five classifications of perishable foods.5.2.3 Explain the importance of assigned locations for the storage of each particular food.5.2.4 Explain the principle of stock rotation as applied to food service.5.3 Distinguish between issuing procedures for directs (perishables) and those for stores (non-perishables).5.4 Describe the process used to price and extend a food requisition.5.5 Explain the difference between interunit and intraunit transfers, and give two examples of each.5.6 Explain the significance of transfers in determining accurate food costs.

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Storing Control

Standards for food storage should address these concerns:Condition of facilities and equipmentArrangement of foodsLocation of facilitiesSecurity of storage areasDating and pricing of stored foods

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Proper Internal Conditions

Optimum Temperatures for Storing FoodFresh meats 1° to 2°C Fresh produce 1° to 3°C Fresh dairy products 1° to 2°CFresh fish -1° to 1°CFrozen foods -18° to -23°C

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Proper Internal Conditions

Storage containers:Staples (airtight, insect-proof)Perishables (packed to maintain original quality)Fresh Fish (packed in ice)Cooked foods & open cans (stainless steel containers) Shelving: Perishables (slatted shelving)Nonperishables (solid steel shelving)Cleanliness:Daily sweeping and cleaning

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Arrangement of Foods

According to useMost frequently used items closest to entranceFixing definite locationEach item always found in the same locationSeparate facilities for storage of different classes of foodsRotation of stockOlder quantities of food used before newer deliveriesFirst-in, first-out method of stock rotation

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FIFO

FIFO (first-in, first-out) means that the operator intends to rotate stock in such a way that product already on hand is sold prior to the sale of more recently delivered products. FIFO is the preferred storage technique for most perishable and non-perishable items. Failure to implement a FIFO system of storage management can result in excessive product loss due to spoilage, shrinkage, and deterioration of quality.

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Location of Storage Facilities

Speeds the storing and issuing of foodMaximizes securityReduces labour requirementsHelping to minimize infestation of rodents

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Storage

Remember that storage costs money, in terms of the space for items, and the money that is tied up in inventory items. In most establishments, the storage process consists of four parts:placing products in storagemaintaining product quality and safetymaintaining product securitydetermining inventory value

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Storage

Some operators require the storeroom clerk to mark or tag each delivered item with the date of delivery. Products are generally placed in one of three major storage areas:dry storagerefrigerated storagefrozen storage

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Dry storage

Dry storage areas should generally be maintained at a temperature ranging between 18°C and 21°C.Shelving must be sturdy, easy to clean, and at least 15 cm (6 in.) above the floor to ensure proper ventilation. Dry goods should never be stored directly on the floor. Labels should face out for easy identification.

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Refrigerated Storage

Refrigerator temperatures should generally be maintained between 0°C and 2°C. Refrigerators actually work by removing heat from the contents, rather than "making" food cold.Refrigerators should have easily cleaned shelving units that are at least 15 cm (6 in) off the floor and are slotted to allow for good air circulation.

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Freezer Storage

Freezer temperatures should be maintained between -18°C and -23°C. It is anticipated that in the future more and more foodservice storage space will be devoted to frozen food.Frozen food holding units must be regularly maintained, a process that includes cleaning inside and out, and constant temperature monitoring to detect possible improper operation.

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Stock Rotation

Regardless of the storage type, food and related products should be stored neatly in some logical order. Food product quality rarely improves with increased storage time. The primary method for ensuring product quality while in storage is through proper product rotation and high standards of storeroom sanitation.

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Storage Areas

Storage areas are excellent breeding grounds for insects, some bacteria, and also rodents. To protect against these potentially damaging hazards, you should insist on a regular cleaning of all storage areas. Both refrigerators and frozen food holding units should be kept 15 – 24 cm (6 – 10 in.) from walls to allow for the free circulation of air and efficient operation of the units.

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Other Storeroom Needs

Ideally, frozen food holding units and refrigerators should have externally visible internal thermometers, whether they are read as a digital display, or in the more traditional temperature scale.In larger storage areas, hallways should be kept clear and empty of storage materials or boxes.

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Security

Most foodservice operators attempt to control access to the location of stored products. It is your responsibility to see to it that the storeroom clerk maintains good habits in securing product inventory. As a general rule, if storerooms are to be locked, only one individual should have the key during any shift.

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Product Security

Product security can be achieved if a few principles are observed:Food, beverages, and supplies should be requisitioned only as needed based on approved production schedules.Required items (issues) should be issued only with management approval.If a written record of issues is to be kept, each person removing food, beverages, or supplies from the storage area must sign, acknowledging receipt of the products.Products that do not ultimately get used should be returned to the storage area, and their return recorded.

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Problems from Lack of Training

Foods stored in appropriate containers or at improper temperaturesOne single item stored in several locationsNew deliveries stored in front of oldIncreased pilferage if storage areas are not securedValues of issues unidentifiable because those issuing foods have not recorded item prices on requisitions

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Product Issuing

A requisition system that is time-consuming and complicatedVSInformal practices

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Requisitions

A copy of the storeroom requisition be sent to the purchasing agent, provide a sense of movement of product in and out of the storage.The unit value is multiplied by the number of units issued, called extending the requisition.

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Transfers

Food or beverage products may be transferred from one food service unit to another. For example, it is likely that fruit juice, vegetables, and similar items are taken from the kitchen for use in the bar, while wine, sherry, and similar items may be taken from the bar for use in the kitchen.Transfers out of the kitchen are subtracted from the cost of food sold and transfers in to the kitchen are added to the cost of food sold.

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Food and Beverage Transfers

Intraunit TransfersBetween Bar and KitchenCooking wines and spiritsFruits, juices and dairy productsBetween Kitchen and KitchenLarge hotels that operate more than one kitchenInterunit TransfersTransfers of food and beverage between units in a chain

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Key Terms

Extending the requisition, p. 142First-in, first-out (FIFO) method of stock rotation, p. 136Interunit transfers, p. 145Intraunit transfers, p. 144Requisition, p. 140

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Chapter Web Links

Micros POS software:www.micros.com/AboutUs/Locations/Offices.aspx?country=CanadaCulinary Software Services: www.culinarysoftware.comCanadian Food Inspection Agency: www.inspection.gc.ca/english/fssa/fssae.shtml

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Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (The Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency) is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his or her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The author and the publisher assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

Copyright

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