Effects of Survey Mode on Responses:
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Effects of Survey Mode on Responses:

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Effects of Survey Mode on Responses:




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Presentation on theme: "Effects of Survey Mode on Responses:"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Effects of Survey Mode on Responses: An Experiment of Social Desirability Biases in Telephone, Interviewer, and Online Surveys

Indeok

Song

Joongbu

University, Korea

Sung

Kyum

Cho

Chungnam

National University

Slide2

Contents

Background: 3 Surveys on Gambling Addiction

Research Question & Purpose

Review of Previous Research

Methods

Results

Discussions & Suggestions

Slide3

Results of 2010’s Surveys

Slide4

Results of 2010’s Surveys

Slide5

Research Question

What is the reason for the inconsistencies among 3 surveys’ results? Which mode does produce the most accurate estimates?

Sampling?

Survey Mode?

Slide6

Previous Research

Survey modes “can be equivalent but are not always identical”

(Riva et al., 2003, p. 79)

Sensitivity & Social desirability

(Booth-

Kewley

, Larson, & Miyoshi, 2007;

Couper

, 2000; Huang, 2006;

Joinson

, 1999;

Kays

,

Gathercoal

, &

Buhrow

, 2011;

Tourangeau

& Yan, 2007, 2011 and so on)

Mode of admin.: Self- vs. Interviewer-administered

Self-administration increases reporting of socially undesirable behaviors

(

Corkrey

& Parkinson, 2002;

Currivan

et al., 2004;

Hochstim

, 1967;

Moskowitz

, 2004; Mott, 1985; Richman et al., 1999, and so on)

Paper-Pencil, Online

> Telephone, Interviewer

Slide7

Previous Research

Interviewer or 3

rd

party presence

Social desirability bias is worse in telephone survey than in face-to-face interviews

(

Aquilino

, 1994; Groves & Kahn, 1979; Holbrook et al., 2003; Johnson,

Hougland

, & Clayton, 1989;

Leeuw

& van

der

Zouwen

, 1988, and so on)

The presence of others affects responses to sensitive questions

(

Aquilino

, Wright, & Supple, 2000; Harrison, 2001; Lombard &

Ditton

, 1997;

Sudman

, 2001;

Tourangeau

& Yan, 201, and so on

)

Online survey yields the lowest level of other people’s presence

∴ Online

>

Interviewer

> Telephone

Slide8

Research Purpose

Controlling for variances from sampling and different groups of samples, to examine the effects of survey modes on the responses to sensitive questions.

Slide9

Methods

Pretest-posttest 3 between-group experimental design93 undergraduate students  66 analyzedOut of 66, male 38 (57.6%), female 28 (42.4%), mean age 20.61 (SD=1.97)

Paper-pencil

(

N

=93)

2

weeks

Random

Assignment

Online

(

n

=21)

Telephone

(

n

=24)

Interview

(

n

=21)

Slide10

Methods

Questionnaire DesignAddiction ScalesGambling addiction (4pt., 9 items) M=9.24, SD=2.54, α=.84Internet addiction (4pt., 15 items)M=29.13, SD=7.24, α=.90Game addiction (4pt., 20 items)M=26.80, SD=8.84, α=.96Dissatisfaction with self-appearance (5pt., 6 items)M=14.43, SD=3.71, α=.66Sexual values (5pt., 10 items)M=27.88, SD=7.14, α=.89

Slide11

Methods

Sexual experienceAge of the first experiencen=27, M=18.59, SD=1.67Number of sexual partnersn=26, M=10.81, SD=3.68Sexual behaviors (physical contact, cuddle, kiss, caress, intercourse) experienced in current relationshipn=19, M=3.68, SD=1.42DemographicsGender, age, household-income

Slide12

Results

Homogeneity among groups (pretest: paper-pencil)

Source

df

F

p

Gambling Addiction

(2, 63)

1.29

.28

Internet Addiction

(2, 63)

.09

.91

Game Addiction

(2, 63)

2.13

.13

Dissatisfaction with Self

(2, 63)

.31

.73

Sexual Values

(2, 63)

.28

.76

Age of 1

st

Experience

(2, 24)

1.89

.19

No. of Partners

(2, 23)

.59

.56

Sexual Behaviors

(2, 16)

.24

.79

Slide13

Responses for Game Addiction

Slide14

Responses for Dissatisfaction with Self-Appearance

Slide15

2 x 3 Factorial ANOVAs

Independent Variables2 groups (‘Low’ & ‘High’) by median split3 modes (Online, Telephone, Interview)Dependent VariablesChanges in responses = Pretest – Posttest

DVs

N

M

SD

Gambling Addiction

66

.27

2.30

Internet Addiction

66

1.08

6.78

Game Addiction

66

1.14

8.05

Dissatisfaction with Self

66

1.18

3.13

Sexual Values

66

1.44

4.65

Age of 1

st

Experience

22

.

68

1.49

No. of Partners

22

-3.95

16.76

Sexual Behaviors

16

-.13

1.46

Slide16

Changes in Responses for Gambling Addiction

Slide17

Changes in Responses for Internet Addiction

Slide18

Changes in Responses forGame Addiction

Slide19

Changes in Responses for Dissatisfaction with Self-Appearance

Slide20

Changes in Responses for Sexual Values

Slide21

Changes in Responses for Age of the 1st Intercourse

Slide22

Summary of the Results

Responses for ‘Game Addiction’ & ‘Dissatisfaction with Self-Appearance’

Increased in the online survey mode

Decreased in the telephone & interview survey modes

Those who scored higher on the sensitive questions are more likely to change their responses in a socially desirable direction

Less addicted (gambling, Internet, game)

Less dissatisfied with self-appearance

Less liberal (more conservative) sexual values

Younger in the age of the 1

st

sexual intercourse

Slide23

Discussions & Suggestions

Survey responses to sensitive (privacy-related) questions are affected by different survey modes.Online survey in which respondents are less concerned about their privacies is more likely to elicit franker (more accurate) responses.Paper-pencil (group administration), telephone, interview modes lead respondents to privacy concern & misreport.Suggestion: Dual-mode survey

Telephone Sampling

Online Questionnaire

Slide24

Any

idea or suggestion would be welcomed.

Slide25

Slide26

Slide27

Slide28