The Spread of Democracy
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The Spread of Democracy

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The Spread of Democracy




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Slide1

The Spread of Democracy

Popular Politics and Partisan IdentityThe Election of 1828 and the Character Issue Jackson's Democratic Agenda Property and Democracy The Dorr Rebellion Women and Minorities and Democracy

The Spread of Democracy

Democracy in America: 1815-1840 > The Spread of Democracy

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Slide2

The period between 1815 and 1840 witnessed the expansion of democracy within the United States.As a result, by the mid-19th century, most white men were eligible to vote due to a political climate favorable to the "common man"; women and racial minorities, however, remained disenfranchised.In contrast to the Jeffersonian political era that preceded it, Jacksonian democracy promoted the strength of the Executive branch of government at the expense of Congress while also seeking to broaden the public's participation in government.

The Spread of Democracy

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President Andrew Jackson

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840 > The Spread of Democracy

Slide3

The Second Party System arose beginning in 1828 with rising levels of voter interest and partisan identification leading into the presidential election of 1828.The Second Party System is the first and only party system in which the two major parties remained on about equal footing in every region.The Second Party System reflected and shaped the political, social, economic, and cultural currents of the Jacksonian Era until succeeded by the Third Party System.

Popular Politics and Partisan Identity

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Slide4

The election of 1828 was a rematch between the incumbent president, John Quincy Adams, and the runner-up in the 1824 election, Andrew Jackson, .The election of 1828 was important as a turning point in American politics, with some historians and political scientists arguing that it introduced the prototype for modern American politics and the two-party system that we know today.The election is also notable for the personal attacks that occurred between the opposing candidates who had a long and controversial political history together dating back to the hotly contested election of 1824.

The Election of 1828 and the Character Issue

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Electoral College Votes - Election of 1828

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840 > The Spread of Democracy

Slide5

The Jacksonian philosophy of democracy was built upon the pillars of expanded suffrage, Manifest Destiny, patronage, strict constructionism, laissez-faire economics, and a general distrust of banking institutions.Based on these principles, Jackson and his political heirs changed the political agenda of the United States.Jackson set to rid of any institutions that was seen as driving the elite, such as the national bank.

Jackson's Democratic Agenda

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Jackson and the Second Bank of the United States

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Slide6

When the country was founded, in most states, only white men with real property (land) or sufficient wealth for taxation were permitted to vote.Unpropertied white men, almost all women, and all other people of color were denied the franchise.Jacksonian democracy is the political movement toward greater democracy for the common man typified by American politician Andrew Jackson and his supporters.Jacksonian democracy also refers to the period of the Second Party System (mid-1830s–1854) when the democratic attitude was the spirit of that era.It can be contrasted with the characteristics of Jeffersonian democracy.Jackson's equal political policy became known as "Jacksonian Democracy", subsequent to ending what he termed a "monopoly" of government by elites.Jeffersonians opposed inherited elites but favored educated men while the Jacksonians gave little weight to education.During the Jacksonian era, suffrage was extended to (nearly) all white male adult citizens.

Property and Democracy

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Andrew Jackson

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Slide7

The Dorr Rebellion of Rhode Island (1841-1842) was an insurrection led by Thomas Dorr regarding the issues of suffrage and electoral system reforms.Under Rhode Island's original charter, only landowners could vote.As a result, by 1829, 60% of the state's free white men were ineligible to vote (as were all women and most non-white men).The electorate of Rhode Island was made up of only 40% of the state's white men.The Dorr Rebellion demonstrates that as average citizens became more involved in political issues, conflict was possible and did occur.The event can be viewed as symptomatic of an era where citizens became more impassioned and partisan in their political beliefs.The rebellion started when two different state constitutions were approved and two different governors were elected in the same election.The Dorrites favored greater voting rights.The Charterites preferred the original charter and restricted voting.

The Dorr Rebellion

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Tyrants Prostrate, Liberty Triumphant

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Slide8

Women and minorities were decidedly overlooked in the expansion of democracy across early nineteenth century America.Despite this, many members of these communities were involved in suffrage and abolitionist movements.The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 triggered a huge demand for imported slave labor to develop new cotton plantations.The result was a 70% increase in the number of slaves in the United States in only 20 years.Many women in the 19th century were involved in reform movements, particularly abolitionism.The first wave of the women's suffrage movement began with the Seneca Falls Convention held in Seneca Falls, New York, on July 19 and 20, 1848.

Women and Minorities and Democracy

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Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia.Painted upon the sketch of 1853

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Slide9

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Appendix

Slide10

Key terms

Charterite A resident of Rhode Island who supported the original state charter that limited suffrage to free white landownersCoffin Handbills The Coffin Handbills were a series of pamphlets attacking Andrew Jackson during the 1828 United States presidential election.corrupt bargain The term Corrupt Bargain refers to three historic incidents in American history in which political agreement was determined by congressional or presidential actions that many viewed to be corrupt from different standpoints.Cult of Domesticity The Cult of Domesticity or Cult of True Womanhood was a prevailing value system among the upper and middle classes during the nineteenth century in the United States and Great Britain.Democratic-Republican Party The political Party organized by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1791.dorrite A participant in the Dorr Rebellion.government-granted monopolies In economics, a form of coercive monopoly by which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or firm to be the sole provider of a good or service.Potential competitors are excluded from the market by law, regulation, or other mechanisms of government enforcement.Also called a "de jure monopoly."Guarantee Clause Article Four of the United States Constitution outlines the duties states have to each other, as well as those the federal government has to the states.Jacksonian Democracy Jacksonian democracy is the political movement toward greater democracy for the common man typified by American politician Andrew Jackson and his supporters.Jacksonian Democracy Jacksonian democracy is the political movement toward greater democracy for the common man typified by American politician Andrew Jackson and his supporters.laissez-faire An economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from tariffs, government subsidies, and enforced monopolies, with only enough government regulations to protect property rights against theft and aggression.Second Party System The Second Party System is a term of periodization used by historians and political scientists to name the political party system existing in the United States from about 1828 to 1854, after the First Party System.

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Slide11

Second Party System The Second Party System is a term of periodization used by historians and political scientists to name the political party system existing in the United States from about 1828 to 1854, after the First Party System.sectionalism Sectionalism refers to the different economies, social structures, customs, and political values of the American North and South.It increased steadily from 1800–1860 as the North, without slavery, industrialized, urbanized, and built prosperous farms, while the deep South concentrated on plantation agriculture based on slave labor, together with subsistence farming for poor whites.Seneca Falls Convention The Seneca Falls Convention was an early and influential women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls, New York, July 19–20, 1848.suffrage The right or chance to vote, express an opinion, or participate in a decision.the "common man" The average citizen, as contrasted with the social, political or cultural elite.Whig Party A political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy.Considered integral to the Second Party System and operating from the early 1830s to the mid-1850s, the party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party.In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism.white male suffrage The expansion of voting rights to white males who are not landowners.yeoman farmers Yeoman refers chiefly to a free man owning his own farm, especially from the Elizabethan era to the 17th century.

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Slide12

President Andrew JacksonAndrew Jackson inspired a wave of political participation among "the common man."

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"Andrew Jackson Daguerrotype-crop."

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Slide13

Andrew JacksonAndrew Jackson - 7th President of the United States (1829–1837)

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Slide14

Jackson and the Second Bank of the United StatesDemocratic cartoon from 1833 showing Jackson destroying the bank, to the approval of the Uncle Sam-like figure to the right and the annoyance of the bank's president, depicted as the Devil.

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Slide15

Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia.Painted upon the sketch of 1853Slaves were forced to work on plantations often under brutal conditions.

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Slide16

Presidential Election Results by County (1828)Results by county with each candidate's winning percentage indicated below the map.

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Slide17

Electoral College Votes - Election of 1828Presidential election results map.Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Slide18

Tyrants Prostrate, Liberty TriumphantA polemic from Rhode Island (1844) in support of the Dorrite cause.

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Slide19

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Which of the following is closely associated with Jacksonian Democracy?

A) Elite control over key executive offices

B) A robust emphasis on education

C) Broad public participation in government

D) Diminished turnout at the polls

Slide20

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Which of the following is closely associated with Jacksonian Democracy?

A) Elite control over key executive offices

B) A robust emphasis on education

C) Broad public participation in government

D) Diminished turnout at the polls

Slide21

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

During the Second Party System

A) only the South and West remained single-party regions

B) Jacksonian Democrats found their strongest support in the Northeast

C) politics assumed a central role in voters' lives

D) the political convention fell out of use and favor

Slide22

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

During the Second Party System

A) only the South and West remained single-party regions

B) Jacksonian Democrats found their strongest support in the Northeast

C) politics assumed a central role in voters' lives

D) the political convention fell out of use and favor

Slide23

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Which factors gave rise to the birth of the second party system?

A) The Panic of 1819

B) The War of 1812

C) Slavery debates in Congress AND the Panic of 1819

D) Slavery debates in Congress

Slide24

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Which factors gave rise to the birth of the second party system?

A) The Panic of 1819

B) The War of 1812

C) Slavery debates in Congress AND the Panic of 1819

D) Slavery debates in Congress

Slide25

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Which of the following could well be seen as a source of Jackson's grievances against and anger toward Adams?

A) Jackson won a plurality in the election of 1824 but did not become President

B) Jackson had been denied appointment to the Senate in Adams' home state of Massachusetts

C) Adams had slighted Jackson's friend and colleague Henry Clay

D) Adams had once defeated Jackson in a non-violent duel

Slide26

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Which of the following could well be seen as a source of Jackson's grievances against and anger toward Adams?

A) Jackson won a plurality in the election of 1824 but did not become President

B) Jackson had been denied appointment to the Senate in Adams' home state of Massachusetts

C) Adams had slighted Jackson's friend and colleague Henry Clay

D) Adams had once defeated Jackson in a non-violent duel

Slide27

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

In the 1828 election,

A) the candidates agreed to leave character out of the campaign

B) each candidate conceded that his opponent was a man of upright character

C) Jackson ruthlessly attacked Adams, while Adams ignored Jackson's seemingly disreputable character

D) each candidate tried to tarnish the other with scandals and recriminations

Slide28

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

In the 1828 election,

A) the candidates agreed to leave character out of the campaign

B) each candidate conceded that his opponent was a man of upright character

C) Jackson ruthlessly attacked Adams, while Adams ignored Jackson's seemingly disreputable character

D) each candidate tried to tarnish the other with scandals and recriminations

Slide29

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Jacksonian and his supporters stood opposed to

A) universal suffrage for white men

B) the Democratic Party

C) monopoly control of government by elites

D) the Second Party System

Slide30

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Jacksonian and his supporters stood opposed to

A) universal suffrage for white men

B) the Democratic Party

C) monopoly control of government by elites

D) the Second Party System

Slide31

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

During the 1820s and 1830s, the "rise of democratic politics" referred to:

A) The guarantee of white male suffrage in all states

B) the abolition of property qualifications for voting and office holding

C) The process of states choosing presidential electors in the state legislature

D) the guarantee of white female suffrage in five states

Slide32

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

During the 1820s and 1830s, the "rise of democratic politics" referred to:

A) The guarantee of white male suffrage in all states

B) the abolition of property qualifications for voting and office holding

C) The process of states choosing presidential electors in the state legislature

D) the guarantee of white female suffrage in five states

Slide33

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

The Industrial Revolution indirectly disenfranchised many Rhode Islanders because

A) it caused them to move to states where their voting rights were not respected

B) it caused them to move to the city, where owning land was difficult

C) it caused them to work long hours and thereby miss voting registration periods

D) it caused them to swear allegiance to the Charterite side

Slide34

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

The Industrial Revolution indirectly disenfranchised many Rhode Islanders because

A) it caused them to move to states where their voting rights were not respected

B) it caused them to move to the city, where owning land was difficult

C) it caused them to work long hours and thereby miss voting registration periods

D) it caused them to swear allegiance to the Charterite side

Slide35

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Which of the following best describes women's political activity in the first half of the 19th-century?

A) Women to extend the promises enshrined in the Declaration of Independence

B) The Cult of Domesticity prevented any women from entering the public sphere

C) Women stood as equals with men in public life

D) White women participated in public life but prevented African-American women from joining

Slide36

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Which of the following best describes women's political activity in the first half of the 19th-century?

A) Women to extend the promises enshrined in the Declaration of Independence

B) The Cult of Domesticity prevented any women from entering the public sphere

C) Women stood as equals with men in public life

D) White women participated in public life but prevented African-American women from joining

Slide37

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Which of the following increased the demand for slaves in early 19th century?

A) The abolition of the international slave trade

B) Changing agricultural practices in the Upper South

C) The growth of black-owned businesses

D) The dissolution of the A

Slide38

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Which of the following increased the demand for slaves in early 19th century?

A) The abolition of the international slave trade

B) Changing agricultural practices in the Upper South

C) The growth of black-owned businesses

D) The dissolution of the A

Slide39

Attribution

Wikipedia. "Jacksonian democracy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacksonian_democracyWiktionary. "the common man." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/the+common+manWikipedia. "Democratic-Republican Party." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic-Republican%20PartyWiktionary. "suffrage." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/suffrageWikipedia. "Jacksonian Democracy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacksonian%20DemocracyWikipedia. "Second Party System." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Party_SystemWikipedia. "Second Party System." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second%20Party%20SystemWikipedia. "Whig Party." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whig%20PartyWikipedia. "Jacksonian Democracy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacksonian%20DemocracyWikipedia. "white male suffrage." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/white%20male%20suffrageWikipedia. "Voting rights in the United States." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voting_rights_in_the_United_States#Milestones_of_national_franchise_extensionWikipedia. "Suffrage." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suffrage#Wealth.2C_tax_class.2C_social_classWikipedia. "Jacksonian democracy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacksonian_democracy#The_PhilosophyWikipedia. "yeoman farmers." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/yeoman%20farmersWikipedia. "government-granted monopolies." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/government-granted%20monopoliesWikipedia. "Jacksonian democracy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacksonian_democracy#The_PhilosophyWikipedia. "laissez-faire." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/laissez-faire

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840

Slide40

Wikipedia. "Cult of Domesticity." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cult%20of%20DomesticityWikipedia. "Seneca Falls Convention." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seneca%20Falls%20ConventionWikipedia. "African-American history." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African-American_history#The_Antebellum_PeriodWikipedia. "History of women in the United States." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_women_in_the_United_States#1800.E2.80.931900Wikipedia. "sectionalism." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sectionalismWikipedia. "corrupt bargain." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/corrupt%20bargainWikipedia. "Second Party System." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second%20Party%20SystemWikipedia. "Coffin Handbills." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coffin%20HandbillsWikipedia. "Election of 1828." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Election_of_1828Wikipedia. "Guarantee Clause." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guarantee%20ClauseWikipedia. "Dorr Rebellion." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorr_RebellionWiktionary. "dorrite." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/dorriteWikipedia. "Charterite." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charterite

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Democracy in America: 1815-1840