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INDUSTRIALIZATION AND ITS DISCONTENTS. Industrialization improved firearms, which became more accurate and faster loading.. Winchester, and Krupp and . Mauser. , invented repeating rifles.. Recoil cylinder made field artillery more accurate and “rapid-fire.”.

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Industrialization improved firearms, which became more accurate and faster loading.Winchester, and Krupp and Mauser, invented repeating rifles.

Recoil cylinder made field artillery more accurate and “rapid-fire.”

Most significant development was the machine gun, invented by Hiram Maxim.

First fired in 1884, and was to be the deadliest weapon even created.Slide3

The Social and Economic Impact of Industrialism: 1750–1914Industrialized nations experienced rapid population growth and urbanization.

Industrial production and improved agriculture provided more jobs and food to support a larger



and sanitation advances contributed to increasing population.By late nineteenth century, Britain was the first nation to have more urban than rural inhabitants.

Emigration from Europe also increased, from less developed to more industrialized areas and to America.Railroads and steamships made this process easier.Slide7

Middle class set the cultural and moral standards of the late nineteenth century.Divided into wealthy industrialists and professionals at the top, with tradesmen and handcrafters

at the bottom.


respectability, family, and industriousness.Slide8

Working class divided into skilled and unskilled labor.Lives regulated by the factory schedule and exchanging labor for wages.Harsh

working conditions: dangerous machinery, long hours, and low wages.


the early 1800s women and children made up most of the workforce.

Less trained and thus less expensive to hire than male workers.Conditions particularly bad in the mines, with heavy work and little ventilation.Slide10

Cities near factories often polluted from coal smoke and other industrial production.Sanitation limited, and with large populations, outbreaks of cholera, typhus, and tuberculosis

were common.


conditions were crowded and unsanitary.

Friedrich Engels wrote a scathing attack on industrial culture in 1845.Slide14

Utopian Socialists criticized working-class living conditions and industrial abuses.Saint-Simon (1760-1825) argued for a more equitable distribution of private property.Louis


(1811-1882) wanted

to extend voting rights to workers in France.

Chartism in Britain also advocated for extending voting rights.Robert Owen (1771-1858) created Grand National Consolidated Trades Union and tried to organize a national strike.Slide17

Karl Marx studied the working and living conditions of workers in Manchester.Developed the theory of scientific socialism, of all history was class struggles.


that revolution was the method by which the working class, or

proletariat, would

overthrow the capitalists.Promoted theory of dialectical materialism in 1848, collaborating with Engels.Slide18

Karl Marx (1818-1883)Economics drives everythingClass struggleHistory is inevitableSlide19

Governments were also concerned about living and working conditions.Britain’s Parliament passed the Factory Act in 1833.Fixed number of hours and minimum age at nine for child labor.


1830s conditions for female workers improved and more jobs were available.


technologies, such as the typewriter, offered women more jobs.Women still lacked political power and economic independence.Suffrage movements, advocating for the right to vote, were popular.Slide20

Living conditions improved with better sanitation.Public Health Act in Britain, 1848, was followed by the creation of public water services in 1860s and 1870s.


the 1880s electrical lighting replaced gaslights.


rebuilt in 1850s and 1860s, under Georges Haussman, urban planner.Streets were widened, buildings modernized, and public parks added.Improved city and made it easier to control public demonstrations.Slide21

Scale of business increased, as governments tended to follow a laissez-faire liberalism.Companies had monopolies on industries and owners became very wealthy.Slide22

Intellectual and Cultural Responses in the Age of IndustrialismLate-nineteenth-century

experimentation and discovery in the nature of matter.


Lorentz, 1892, proved that the atom was made up of smaller particles.Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-rays.Antoine Becquerel and Marie Curie found radioactivity in uranium and radium.In

1900, Planck’s Quantum Theory explains that energy is emitted in bursts.Suggests that matter and energy are interchangeable.Slide23

Albert Einstein debunked the Newtonian theory of absolute, mechanistic universe.Einstein theorized in his theory of relativity that there are no absolutes of time, space, and motion.


of E = MC2 suggests that matter and energy were equivalent.


amounts of matter could be converted into great amounts of energy.Led to the discovery of nuclear weapons in the twentieth century.Slide24

Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution based on observations in the Pacific.Darwin took part in an exploratory sailing mission on the Beagle, 1831–1836.


of evolution also discovered separately by Alfred Russell Wallace.


men suggested that species were changed the struggle for food.Slide25

Darwin’s theory had three principle clauses.In nature, more species appear than be supported by existing food.Species

struggle to survive the shortness of food.


mutations that aid in survival aid a species to survive.Slide26

Darwin’s theory controversial because he argued for a natural selection process without any plan by a divine being.Herbert Spencer applied Darwin’s theories to societies and nations.


Darwinism applied to races, ethnicities, and peoples.


to justify imperialism and violent nationalism.Slide27

Nineteenth century psychologists interested in unconscious impulses and insanity.Sigmund Freud invented psychoanalysis for treating emotionally disturbed.Freud

stressed the dominance of unconscious sexual urges and motivations

in driving

human behavior.Slide30

Scientific–industrial society caused many to question their sense of purpose.Friedrich Nietzsche criticized modern industrial society as decadent.


whether Western Civilization really embodied “progress.”


the concept of rational thought as the path to truth.Only the “will” leads one to truth and will improve the individual.Slide31

Protestant leaders sought accommodation with science, except with Darwinism.Roman Catholic Church first opposed new science, then under Pope Leo XIII (1878–1903) opened up a Vatican office to study science.


Pius X (1903–1914) went back to opposing science.Slide32

Writers generally despaired of the materialism of the later industrial revolution.Thomas Hardy’s novels reflect the futility of fighting modernity.


Bernard Shaw mocked the shallowness of


society.Decadence and Symbolism were literary genres that represented extreme reactions to industrialization.Slide33



y Félicien

Rops (1833-1898)Slide34

Symbolism“In this art, scenes from nature, human activities, and all other real world phenomena will not be described for their own sake; here, they are perceptible surfaces created to represent their esoteric affinities with the primordial


Jean Moréas, 1886

“Death of the Grave Digger”



, 1895Slide38

Impressionist painters and then Post-Impressionists rejected middle-class conventions.Emphasis on subjective interpretations from the perspective of the artist.


van Gogh was a Post-Impressionist, represents a reaction

against modernity

.Other schools, such as Cubism, were increasingly experimental.Slide39

Claude Monet (1840-1926)Slide40

Vincent Van Gough (1853-1890)Slide41

Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)Slide42

Two musical responses to the scientific–industrial society emerged.Modernism was tied to cultural developments and allied with Impressionism



Strauss, Debussy

Primitivism took a more experimental approach and rejected formal structure.Stravinsky