Cold War Chapter 36b Intro: Cold War
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Cold War Chapter 36b Intro: Cold War

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Cold War Chapter 36b Intro: Cold War

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Cold War

Chapter 36b


Intro: Cold War

By end of WWII, alliance between G.B., U.S., and U.S.S.R. disintegrating

Cold war = competition for global influence between democracy/capitalism and communism

Led to: alliances (-> “iron curtain”), client states, arms race, diplomatic crises, military conflicts, brink of nuclear war


Origins of the Cold War

United Nations: supra-national organization to keep world peace and security (1945)

Soviets wanted friendly gov’ts in E. Eur.

Truman doctrine: divided world, “containment: of communism through foreign interventionMarshall Plan: rebuild Europe and support Truman doctrineSoviet response: COMECON to help satellite nations


Origins of the Cold War (cont.)

Military alliances: NATO = against Soviet aggression, included W. Germany (rearmed) -> Warsaw Pact = collective defense against NATO


Origins of the Cold War (cont.)

A Divided Germany: Berlin and Germany divided into 4 admin zones

Soviets wanted control of Berlin

Western powers merged zones -> Soviets blockaded W. Berlin -> Berlin Airlift=> 2 states: W. Germany and E. GermanyTo stop refugees from leaving East Berlin, Soviets built Berlin


over previous fortifications




The Globalization of the Cold War

China: communists won civil war, nationalists retreat to Taiwan, Mao proclaims People’s Republic of China (1949)

Closely allied with Soviets with U.S. as common enemy (due to anticommunism, aid of Japan, and client states in S. Korea and Taiwan)

Plus, Soviets provided military and economic aid to China


The Globalization of the Cold War: Korean War (cont.)

End of WWII: Korea partitioned at 38


parallel by US and USSRUnable to agree on unification -> 2 states (north: communist, south: democratic) = armed clients1950: north invaded south, US pushed north back and tried to unify, China pushed south back to 38th parallel and


1953: ceasefire, but no peace treaty


Globalization of the Cold War (cont.)

= globalization of containment policy and US aid to non-communist Asian countries

Eisenhower’s domino theory -> more US intervention

China-Soviet alliance began to coolNuclear arms race: “proliferation”, -> MAD capacity => terror, but stability


Globalization of the Cold War (cont.)

Cuba, 1959: Castro overthrew Batista (US sugar connection)

Castro accepted Soviet aid and declared Marxist-Leninist gov’t

1961: JFK authorized CIA supported invasion of Cuba by anti-Castro Cubans = failed (and US prestige in Latin Am. Dropped)Castro accepted Soviet missiles to deter future attacks1962: nuclear missiles in Cuba -> JFK ultimatum and blockade -> compromise with Krushev to remove missiles in Cuba and Turkey and promise not to invade Cuba


Dissent, Intervention, and


Destalinization: removal of influence, less gov’t control, release of political prisoners, and “peaceful coexistence” foreign policy by communist leaders (1956-64)

Hungary and Czechoslovakia tried to weaken ties and liberalize, but Soviets invaded and squashed movementLate 1960s: US/USSR détente = reduction in hostility -> less tension, negotiations, state visits


by Nixon)