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Basic Aristotelian terms for Invention

Ethos: The Persuasiveness of Character. Ethos. The term originally meant “way of life” or “dwelling/abode” and shares the root of the words . ethics/ethical . and . ethnic.. Ethos. The term originally meant “way of life” or “dwelling/abode” and shares the root of the words .

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Basic Aristotelian terms for Invention






Presentation on theme: "Basic Aristotelian terms for Invention"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Basic Aristotelian terms for Invention

Slide2

Ethos: The Persuasiveness of Character

Slide3

Ethos

The term originally meant “way of life” or “dwelling/abode” and shares the root of the words

ethics/ethical

and

ethnic.

Slide4

Ethos

The term originally meant “way of life” or “dwelling/abode” and shares the root of the words

ethics/ethical

and

ethnic.

Aristotle says that among all the elements of persuasion, it is the

ethos

of the speaker that tends to be the most influential.

Slide5

Ethos

Audiences seek demonstrations of the speaker’s

Slide6

Ethos

Audiences seek demonstrations of the speaker’s

Good judgment: Do you grasp things appropriately, make good decisions, are you wise and balanced in your views?

Slide7

Ethos

Audiences seek demonstrations of the speaker’s

Good judgment: Do you

grasp

things appropriately, make good decisions, are you wise and balanced in your views?

Good will: Do you have the audience’s best interests at heart?

Slide8

Ethos

Audiences seek demonstrations of the speaker’s

Good judgment: Do you

grasp

things appropriately, make good decisions, are you wise and balanced in your views?

Good will: Do you have the audience’s best interests at heart?

Good character: Do you provide a model to emulate?

Slide9

Ethos

Slide10

Ethos

At minimum:

establish your credibility to speak on the subject.

A more advanced approach

: demonstrate your good judgment, good will, and good character.

The best

:

speakers cultivate an unmistakable personal style that animates the whole speech and gives

us

a new way to be.

Slide11

Pathos: The Persuasiveness of Emotions

Slide12

Pathos

Shares root of the word

passion

and

passive

. To feel

pathos

means to be “touched” by the language of the speaker.

Slide13

Pathos

Shares root of the word

passion

and

passive

. To feel

pathos

means to be “touched” by the language of the speaker.

According to Aristotle,

pathe

are not “irrational” or unpredictable. A speaker can deliberately cultivate specific moods and, from there, influence an audience’s judgment.

Slide14

Pathos

Good speakers add elements to a speech that put the audience in a “mood.”

Fear-Confidence

Love-Hate

Anger-Calm

Shame-Pride

Pity-Contempt

Slide15

Pathos

Good speakers add elements to a speech that put the audience in a “mood.”

Angst, boredom, depression, despair, duty, embarrassment, faith, friendship, frustration, gratitude, guilt, hope, indifference, innocence, jealousy, joy, loss, mourning, nihilism, pride, regret, remorse, respect, sadness, self-respect, vanity, zeal and more…

Slide16

Pathos

Pathos is often cultivated through

concrete

language

and

sensory detail

.

Slide17

Pathos

Slide18

Pathos

At minimum

: Add emotionally attuned passages to one or more main points.

A more advanced approach

: Seek to stir specific moods in the audience that might shape their judgment.

The best

:

speakers cultivate a palpable emotional energy in the speech that gives the audience a kind of embodied “thrill” and awakens new emotional responsiveness and new ways to feel.

Slide19

Logos: The persuasiveness of good Reasons

Slide20

Logos

The word originally meant “gathering” in a way that allows what is there to stand out.

Slide21

Logos

The word originally meant “gathering” in a way that allows what is there to stand out.

We find

logos

used as a suffix (e.g. psycho

logy

, anthropo

logy

, bio

logy

).

Slide22

Logos

The word originally meant “gathering” in a way that allows what is there to stand out.

We find

logos

used as a suffix (e.g. psycho

logy

, anthropo

logy

, bio

logy

)

And it is the word for “Word” in the Christian tradition.

Slide23

Logos

For this class, we will consider

logos

primarily as a way thinking about the importance of building strong

arguments

.

Slide24

Logos

For this class, we will consider

logos

primarily as a way thinking about the importance of building strong

arguments

.

Logos in this sense deals with what is

likely

and

reasonable

…not “logical” and “necessary.”

Slide25

Slide26

Argument

Argument is an attempt to inspire

judgment

in an another about something

uncertain

using

reasons

drawn from what the audience

already

knows and believes.

Slide27

Parts of an Argument

Claim: A statement about something uncertain

Slide28

Parts of an Argument

Claim: A statement about something uncertain

Reason: Why we should agree

Slide29

Parts of an Argument

Claim: A statement about something uncertain

Reason: Why we should agree

Evidence: What facts support the reason

Slide30

Parts of an Argument

Claim: A statement about something uncertain

Reason: Why we should agree

Evidence: What facts support the reason

---------------------------------------------------------------

Warrant: Underlying (often implicit, common sense) assumptions that make the claim/support plausible

Slide31

Parts of an Argument

Claim: That guy is not boyfriend material.

Slide32

Parts of an Argument

Claim: That guy is not boyfriend material.

Reason:

Evidence:

----------------------------------------------------------

Warrant:

Slide33

Parts of an Argument

Consider counterarguments at the level of the reasoning or underlying warrant.

Slide34

Parts of an Argument

Claim:

Reason:

Evidence:

----------------------------------------------------------

Warrant:

Slide35

Typical Kinds of Arguments

Definition

Similarity

Difference

Degree

Consequence

Slide36

Logos

At minimum:

Consider what your audience is likely to find reasonable and plausible.

A more advanced approach

: Write an array of arguments tailored to the specific audience; consider the underlying warrants and prepare to refute counter-arguments.

The best

:

speakers give us new ways of reasoning, new truths, or new ways to affirm our truths.

Slide37

Putting it all together

"Before I Die"