Behavioural - PowerPoint Presentation

Behavioural
Behavioural

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interventions to prevent trespass and vandalism Lessons learned from the RESTRAIL and GRAFFOLUTION research projects Grigore M Havârneanu PhD Research Advisor Security Division José Pires ID: 426186 Download Presentation

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Behavioural

interventions to prevent trespass and vandalism: Lessons learned from the RESTRAIL and GRAFFOLUTION research projectsGrigore M. Havârneanu, PhD (Research Advisor – Security Division)José Pires (Senior Security Advisor)

The

Fifth

International Rail

Human

Factors

Conference

London, 15/09/2015Slide2

Accidents to persons

Source: European Railway Agency (ERA, 2014)Trespassing accidents= 61% of all accidents to persons= 18% of all the fatalities within the railway system2The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide3

Consequences for the railway industryAverage shut-down time: 120-240 minutes

Average direct costs incurred by IMs: € 50,000 – 100,000Average direct costs incurred by RUs: € 25,000 – 75,0003The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide4

What is trespass?Unauthorised (illegal) presence on the railway property (tracks, stations, trains...) & no injury intent

Crossing the tracks in illegal places (Silla & Luoma, 2009)Walking along the tracks (Lobb et al., 2001)Loitering close to the tracks (Savage, 2007)Lying or sitting on tracks (Pelletier, 1997)Not all trespassing behaviours (unsafe, violation, risk) result in accidents (death or injury)4The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide5

Why? ConvenienceShortcut (time saving, most attractive route)

(e.g. Lobb et al., 2001; Robinson, 2003; RSSB, 2011; Silla & Luoma, 2009)5The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide6

Why? Unconsidered risks

Children and teenagers (playing, socialising, hanging around)6The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide7

Why? Underestimated risksThrill-seeking

(Lerer & Matzopoulos, 1996; Witte & Donohue, 2000) (e.g. “train surfing”)Homeless people looking for shelter7The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide8

Why? LeisureRecreational & artistic

purposes (taking a walk, taking photos)8The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide9

Why? Escape from controlled areasMigrants

9The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide10

Why? Negative will (1)Fraud, fare-dodging

Metal theft10The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide11

Why? Negative will (2)Vandalism, graffiti

(Offler et al., 2009; Thompson et al., 2012)11The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide12

Groundworkwww.restrail.eu

REduction of Suicides and Trespasses on RAILway property01/10/2011 – 30/09/2014UIC: coordinator17 partnerswww.project.graffolution.eu Reducing graffiti vandalism in public areas and transportation networks01/03/2014 – 29/02/2016UIC: railway representative8 partners12The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide13

Research questionsWhat behavioural measures are available to prevent railway trespass and vandalism?What is the evidence for their effectiveness?

MethodSystematic reviews (e.g. Havârneanu et al., 2015; Willcocks et al., 2014)Collection of prevention practices from the RUs through surveys and workshops (e.g. Ryan et al., 2013; Clavell et al. 2014)13The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide14

Results (main categories of measures)

CollaborationEducationEnforcementEducation in schools

Warning and prohibitive signs

Collaboration between institutions

Education

outside schools

Improved enforcement

Community

partnership

Broader public awareness

Staff training

Learning from

research

and best practice

Intelligent

surveillance

14

The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide15

Example 1: Improved enforcement

Recommended against trespassRecommended against graffiti vandalismSECURITY PATROLSPatrolling during peak periodsRSSB (2002) Offler et al. (2009)

Ability to detect and prosecute

C.A.R.E. (2006);

Lobb

(2006)

Offler

et al. (2009); Thompson et al. (2012)

Legislative efforts

Security patrols able to fine

DaSilva

& Carroll (2011)

Regulating the sale of graffiti materials, creating legal alternatives

Clavell

et al. (2014)

Visibility

Visible clothes

– RSSB (2006)

Plain clothes

(- 40% incidents)

Thompson et al. (2012)

Reinforcing legal

behaviours

Intermittent

rewards

(significant reduction) –

Lobb

et al. (2003)

Free

walls projects

Clavell

et al. (2014)

15

The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide16

Example 2: Staff training

Recommended against trespassRecommended against graffiti vandalismSTAFF TRAININGGeneral training for railway staff to increase awareness, identify and report signs of trespass

Cohen et

al. (2003), RAIB (2011),

Wasnik

(2010),

RSSB (2005

)

Increased presence of

staff

on trains and training of staff for “

railwatch

” against vandals

Offler

et al. (2009); Thompson et al. (2012)

16

The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide17

Example 3: Collaborative measures: engagement

Subway Surfers game appIllegal graffiti + running along the tracks + train surfing17The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide18

Conclusions (theory & research)Common categories of measures to reduce both trespass and graffiti vandalismVery few evidence-based recommendations!

Most measures are actually interdependent and are likely to work in combinationSupport for the BTP “route crime” conceptSupport for the UIC comprehensive railway protection approach (safety + security)18The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide19

Conclusions (prevention practice)Considering the interactions between the two phenomena and influences on one another“feeling of security” and “acceptance threshold”

E.g. Graffiti in an underpass -> perceived insecurity -> illegal track crossing ?19The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015Slide20

Contact: havarneanu@uic.org

Thank you for your kind attention!20The 5th International Rail Human Factors Conference – London, 15/09/2015

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