Chapter 5: Monotheism: Judaism, Christianity, & Islam

Chapter 5:   Monotheism:  Judaism, Christianity, & Islam Chapter 5:   Monotheism:  Judaism, Christianity, & Islam - Start

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Chapter 5: Monotheism: Judaism, Christianity, & Islam




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Presentations text content in Chapter 5: Monotheism: Judaism, Christianity, & Islam

Slide1

Chapter 5:

Monotheism: Judaism, Christianity, & Islam

Slide2

Judaism

HistoryThis is the religion of the Jews, Hebrews, or the Israelites.The Jews did

not

seek out

converts.

Slide3

JudaismHistory

The religion is a monotheistic (one god) religion.It’s god was

Yahweh

.

Yahweh in Hebrew

Slide4

Judaism

HistoryFrom Judaism, Christianity and

Islam

will both emerge.

The Torah, the first five books of the

Bible

, is the Jewish holy book.

Slide5

JudaismHistory

PatriarchsAbraham He is the first patriarch of the religion.

He made a

covenant

(pact) with God.

Slide6

Judaism

HistoryPatriarchs

Moses

One of the most important Jewish patriarchs.

He led the Jews on the Exodus out of Egypt.

He delivered the

10 Commandments

from

Mt. Sinai

.

Slide7

Judaism

HistoryIsraelite ProphetsThey do not predict the future.

The

preach

the word of God that they have received in visions

or

dreams

.

A statue of the prophet Habakkuk.

Slide8

Judaism

HistoryKingsSaul was the first King of Israel.

Slide9

Judaism

HistoryKingsDavidSaul’s son.

He slew the giant, Goliath.

Seduced Bathsheba when he sent Uriah, her husband, off to fight in the front.

Slide10

Judaism

HistoryKings

Solomon

He was David’s son with Bathsheba.

He was known for his wisdom.

Slide11

Judaism

HistoryKingsSolomonHis over expenditure led to Israel breaking into two kingdoms.

North: Kingdom of

Israel

South: Kingdom of

Judah

Slide12

Judaism

HistoryKingsSolomon

He also had the Temple of Solomon built.

This temple was believed to house the

Ark of the Covenant.

Slide13

JudaismHistory

Diaspora (The dispersion of the Jews)Israel fell in 722 B.C.E.

Judah fell for the final time in 73 C.E.

Slide14

JudaismBiblical Literature

Etiological stories explain the origins and causes of things.

Slide15

JudaismBiblical Literature

Fictionalized history means that people and events are real but liberty has been taken with certain facts.

Slide16

Judaism

Biblical LiteratureBiblical PoetrySong of Deborah

Song of the Sea

Slide17

Early Christianity

Jesus & His MessageChristians believe that Jesus is

God

and

Savior.

Christ

means “

Messiah

” or “Anointed One.”

Slide18

Early Christianity

Jesus & His MessageHe taught in parables (stories).

Belief

Love God above all.

Love others as one loves oneself.

Slide19

Early Christianity

Christian AntecedentsCult

Individual

immortality

of the mystery cults.Isis & Osiris Cults

Mithra

of Persia

Dionysius of Greece

Slide20

Early Christianity

Christian AntecedentsCult

Roman Paganism

Assigning power to certain

Gods.Christians do the same with the

Saints

.

Slide21

Early Christianity

Christian AntecedentsCultNear East

Shared

communion

meal.Purification through fasting

.

Slide22

Early Christianity

Christian AntecedentsPhilosophicalStoicism emphasized self-control and brotherhood.

Neo-Platonism

emphasized the spiritual union of the soul & the “One.”

Slide23

Early ChristianityChristian Antecedents

Jewish InfluenceStrong ethical standards.

Weekly holy day (Sabbath).

Slide24

Early Christianity

HistoryMartyrdomStephen

was stoned to death for preaching his beliefs.

Sebastian

was shot with arrows for refusing to acknowledge the Roman gods.

Paul

was executed by the Romans for his preaching.

Slide25

Early Christianity

HistoryRomeEmperor Constantine

passes the

Edict of Milan

which allows Christianity to be tolerated in the Roman Empire.

Slide26

Early Christianity

HistoryRomeEmperor Theodosius

made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.

Slide27

Early Christianity

HistoryThe Great Schism (1054)

Papal supremacy

(control) caused a split within Christianity.

Pope Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius

, mutually excommunicated each other.

Slide28

Early Christianity

HistoryThe Great Schism (1054)

The

Western

Church became the Catholic faith.

The

Eastern

Church became the

Orthodox faith.

Slide29

Atrium

Nave

Apse

Transept

Early Christianity

Art

Architecture

Christian Basilica

Slide30

Early Christianity

ArtArchitectureAmbulatory are circular aisles covered with a barrel vault.

Slide31

Early ChristianityArt

Sarcophagi (coffins) were the only real form of acceptable sculptures in early Christianity.

Slide32

Early ChristianityArt

Frescoes They

are

paintings

made quickly over freshly applied lime plaster.They are commonly found in the Roman catacombs

.

Slide33

Early ChristianityArt

The New Testament as Literature Gospels

are the accounts of Jesus' life and ministry.

Epistles

were letters to early churches clarifying doctrine.

Paul writing the Epistles.

Slide34

Early ChristianityArt

The New Testament as Literature Acts of the Apostles

are a history of the spread of Christianity over the thirty years after Jesus’ resurrection.

Revelations

tells about the end of the world.

Slide35

Early Christianity

ArtMusicSingingResponsorial

is when the congregation answers the choir.

Antiphonal

is when both the choir and congregation have specific parts to sing.

Slide36

Early ChristianityArt

MusicInstruments were not used in early Christianity.

Slide37

Early Christianity

St. Augustine of HippoHe wanted to synthesize

Platonic

philosophy with

Judeo-Christian divine revelation.

Slide38

Early Christianity

St. Augustine of HippoConclusionsMan is moving on a spiritual pilgrimage toward God.

Man cannot attain salvation on his own.

The Church was necessary in instructing man on how to obtain salvation.

Slide39

Byzantine Civilization

HistoryHistorians give it official status with the death of the last Western Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustulus

.

The Byzantine Empire or

Eastern Roman

Empire reaches is height under

Justinian

and

Theodora

.

Slide40

Byzantine Civilization

ArtArchitectureDomes were supported by walls and external

buttresses

.

This created the illusion of more interior space.

San Vitale, Ravenna

Slide41

Byzantine Civilization

ArtArchitecturePendentives are pieces of triangular support masonry that allows for the transition of a circular roof to a square base.

Hagia

Sophia, The Church of Holy Wisdom

Slide42

Byzantine Civilization

ArtArchitecture

Hagia

Sophia, The Church of Holy Wisdom

Slide43

Byzantine Civilization

ArtArchitecture

Piazza

is an open public area.

Tesserae are small cubes of color pressed into wet plaster to make a mosaic.

St. Mark’s Basilica, Venice

Slide44

Byzantine Civilization

ArtIcons (paintings of religious figures or scenes)

Madonna & Child Enthroned

It is painted with egg tempura (pigment mixed with egg yolk).

Slide45

History of Islam

Muhammad the ProphetHe was visited by the Arch-angel Gabriel

and was told the word of God.

These words were later used to create the

Quran (the Islamic Holy Text).

Slide46

History of IslamMuhammad the Prophet

His beliefs were not popular in Mecca.He was forced to flee

to the city of

Yathrib

, which later became known as Medina, the city of the prophet.

Slide47

History of IslamMuhammad the Prophet

Muhammad’s journey is known as the Hijrah.It also marks the first day of the Islamic calendar.

Slide48

History of IslamMuhammad the Prophet

Muhammad later returned to Mecca with an army.He conquered the city and proclaimed it the holy city of the Muslims.

Slide49

History of Islam

Muhammad’s DeathMuhammad had no male heir.As a result the ulema

, a committee of Quran experts, agreed to the election of a

caliph

(deputy or successor of Muhammad).

Slide50

History of Islam

Muhammad’s DeathThe ulema elected Muhammad’s father-in-law,

Abu

Bakr

.

Slide51

History of Islam

The Islamic SchismAli Hussein

, Muhammad’s nephew by blood, proclaimed that he should become the 5

th

caliph.The ulema elected General

Mu'awiya

as the caliph.

Slide52

History of Islam

The Islamic SchismGeneral Mu'awiya and his army slew Ali and established the

Umayyad

Dynasty.

Mu’awiya’s sect became known as the Sunni

or the Traditionalists.

Slide53

History of IslamThe Islamic Schism

Ali Hussein’s followers who believe that the caliph should be a blood-relative

of Muhammad are known as the

Shia

or Shiite.

Slide54

The ReligionTerminology

Muslim means “one who has surrendered to God.”Islam

means “submission to God.”

Slide55

The Religion

Terminology The QuranIt literally means “

recitation

.”

It contains 114 surahs (chapters).

Each

surah

contains

ayas (verses)

Slide56

The Religion

Terminology The Hadith

This is a work that contains sayings and

stories

about Muhammad

.

It is considered a holy work, but does not hold the same importance as the Quran.

Slide57

The ReligionTerminology

The SufisThis is a

mystical

cult of Muslims.

In history they commonly served as missionaries.

They do

not

follow the Quran

literally.

Slide58

The ReligionTerminology

The Sharia

This is the

law

of Islam.The law is based on the

Quran

& the

Hadith

.However, the Sharia

is more subject to national and cultural interpretation.

Slide59

The Religion

The Five Pillars of IslamThe Creed (

shahadah

)

Excepting that Allah is the one God.Excepting the Muhammad is his prophet.

Slide60

The ReligionThe Five Pillars of Islam

The Daily Prayer (salat

)

All Muslims must face

Mecca when they pray.They are required to pray

five

times a day.

Slide61

The Religion

The Five Pillars of IslamCharity or

Alms

(

zakat)If wealthy, Muslims are expected to donate their wealth.Wealth given to the church in this manner cannot be used for the church.

Slide62

The ReligionThe Five Pillars of Islam

The Fast during Ramadan

(

sawm

)During the month of Ramadan, they may not eat or drink during

daylight

hours.

Children, the sick, the elderly, and pregnant woman are exempt.

Slide63

The Religion

The Five Pillars of IslamThe Pilgrimage (hajj)

All Muslims are required to travel to

Mecca

once in their lifetime.If poor or health prevents them, they are exempt of this requirement.

Slide64

CulturePhilosophy

Avincenna and Averroes were both medical doctors who linked Islamic belief with

Aristotelian

logic.

Slide65

CultureScience

Al-Khwaizmi invented algebra.

Slide66

Culture

ScienceMuslim AdvancesPopularized the concept of

zero

and the Indian number system that later becomes known as

Arabic numerals (i.e. 1, 2, 3, etc…).

Preserved

the knowledge of the

Greeks

and Romans

, giving rise to European Universities and the Renaissance.

Slide67

Culture

ArchitectureMosquesThey are the Islamic

temples

.

Each one contains a mihrab, a small niche that lets the worshipper know which way Mecca faces.

The Blue Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey.

Slide68

Culture

ArchitectureMosquesThey will always have at least one

minaret

(a tower for prayer calling).

A muezzin is the actual caller.

Slide69

CultureArchitecture

Many aspects of the palaces and mosques adopt Byzantine artistic and building styles.

Byzantine

Hagia

Sophia

Islamic Blue Mosque

Slide70

CultureArchitecture

Alhambra Palace in Granada, Spain.Islam greatly affected Spanish art and architecture.

Slide71

Culture

LiteratureCalligraphy (fine/fancy handwriting) became extremely popular since statues and most art was regarded as

idolatry

.

Ceramics, miniature paintings, and functional architect were exceptions.

Slide72

Culture

LiteratureWhen the Muslims conquered Persia, most

artistic

work was done in Persian.

Most scientific,

religious

, and

legal

writing was done in

Arabic.

Slide73

Culture

LiteratureFirdawsi

He was a famous Persian

poet

who grew in popularity.His most famous work is Shahnamah

(

Book of Kings

).

Slide74

CultureLiterature

The Thousand and One NightsIt is the most famous Arabic work of prose.It is known as the

Arabian Nights

in the West.

Slide75

Culture

MusicWith the development of the dynasties,

music

become a more common medium.

Persia had a huge influence on Islamic music.

Slide76

Culture

MusicAl-Kindi was a Arabic theorist who was influenced by

Greek musical

theory.


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