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Post WWII adjustments Post WWII adjustments

Post WWII adjustments - PowerPoint Presentation

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Post WWII adjustments - PPT Presentation

Throughout most of the economic crises of the post World War II period governments in Latin America responded by presenting new economic policies representing a important leaving ID: 340172

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Slide1
Slide2

Post WWII adjustments

Throughout

most of the

economic

crises of

the post World

War II

period, governments

in

Latin America

responded

by presenting

new

economic policies representing

a

important leaving

from

the

prior policy path

.

There were disagreements of industrialization, trade, and what would be the United States overall impact on Latin American economies.

The United States wanted to open Latin American markets and business opportunities, while having little risk with its own producers.

Latin America fear that the open access would destroy the industrial progress.

Latin America vainly sought help from the United States.Slide3

Continue

U.S. and Latin America evidently disagreed.

In Latin America the idea that the government has direct control on the civilians welfare has created phenomenal social and economic legislation.

 Popular education also increased, as did exposure to the mass media and mass culture—which in light of the economic lag served to feed discontent. 

Continued advances in public health were the principal basis for the explosion of population growth, which in turn made more difficult the provision of other social services. 

Formerly

competitive economies

such as those of Argentina, Mexico, and Brazil have fallen

far behind

rapidly advancing areas such as South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore.Slide4

Continue Part 2

The period since 1945 witnessed much political instability and social unrest in the region. 

By

1948 the countries south of the Rio Grande have been aligned with the United States in the Organization of American States (OAS

).

 Dominated by the United States, the OAS has sought to prevent communists from acquiring control in Latin American countries by well-meaning, if incomplete, social and economic aid

.

The United States interfered with Latin America Affairs and crossed the line of what they should and should not do.

By 1946 the United States had interfered with three Latin American countries.Slide5

Continue Part three

The United States meddled with the Argentinian presidential campaign be ensuring the victory of Juan Peron.

Forced the Gonzales

Videla

government in Chile to oust its communist coalition cabinet members.

Helped undermine a revolutionary regime in Bolivia because of its “fascist” tendencies.

The Assistance Act of 1951 gave $38.5 million dollars to Latin American Countries so they could build armies.

The United States involvement with Latin America increased exponentially as the Cold War Progressed. Slide6

Latin American Polies of Truman and Eisenhower

Truman was fairly successful in fighting Communism in the Far East and Europe, but had mixed success with Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile during 1946.

Under Truman the movement for hemispheric cooperation continued outward.

The Rio Treaty of 1947 brought Central and South America into a military alliance with the United States. This lead to the formation of the OAS.

Truman was mainly concerned with maintaining the status quo of the region.

Latin America was a key part of Truman’s Four Point program and was significant in all his foreign policies. Slide7

More Foreign Policies

The Eisenhower presidency marked a strong revival in a strong corporate influence on U.S. foreign policy.

During his presidency he faced four Latin American challenges: Guatemala, Cuba

His administration acted according to how much economic interest we had.

In Bolivia 1952 there was a successful revolutionary movement lead by Victor Paz

Estenssoro

and the National Revolutionary Movement which ushered political and economic reform.

The outgoing Truman administration was anxious over the regimes radicalism and withheld aid.Slide8

Bolivia & Britain

The MNR convinced Eisenhower that they were not communist, and therefore received millions of dollars worth of grants throughout the decade.

United States also reestablished and trained the Bolivian army which overthrew Paz

Estenssoro

in 1964, creating a period of conservative rule.

In 1953, Marxist

Cheddi

Jagan

became head of the British colony of Guiana.

Large U.S. metal companies had substantial holdings in Guiana.

Alarmed the U.S. government urged the British to nullify the election.

The British Sent troops to dispose the new government.Slide9

After the Cuban Revolution

The United States supported Batista’s cruel dictatorship and despised Fidel Castro's revolution and movement to private-sector economic growth.

Although the United Stated put $10 Billion

dollors

into Latin America more money came out and as a result the countries fell into debt. Loans to pay off debt fell into corruption.

The U.S trained armies where particularly affective as seen with the Bolivian rangers chased down

Che

Guevara.

Kennedy’s goal was to help pay off loans and reduce poverty in the area. However, Kennedy was more interested in keeping capitalist relations.

Kennedy had other plans as well which included to get rid of Fidel Castro, and Rafael Trujillo of Dominican Republic. Slide10

Kennedy

Like the past administrations Kennedy favored the harsh dictators if it prevented disorder and communist revolution.

March, 1962 the United States made no protest when the Argentinean government overthrew the democratically elected president Arturo

Frondizi

.

A few months later the U.S trained the

Purvian

army to prevent a democratically elected official from taking power.

The Kennedy administration preferred order over democracy.

President LBJ carried Kennedy’s Latin America program. Slide11

LBJ

Under Johnson, the United States played a role in the overthrow of left-leaning regime of Joao

Goulart

in Brazil. Slide12

Primary SourceSlide13

Non-Alignment

The countries that had

selected

neutrality or neutralism

throughout

the four decades of East-West rivalry and those that

declined

to join either

block

were nevertheless

openly

affected by the numerous US and Soviet interventions and

maneuvers.Slide14

Carter’s Latin America

Latin America was very much on the

program

during the first

couple months

of the Carter Administration. During that period, visits to,

examines

of and speeches about Latin America emerged from the new Administration at a

degree

not seen since the early days of the Kennedy presidency

.

 

Key

principles guiding the Carter Administration's Latin America policy:

democratization as the

key

to the future of Latin America,

human rights as a standard upon which to determine relations with Latin American countries, and

reduction

of the flow of arms into Latin America. 

  In Panama,

there

movement focused on the United States’ ownership of the Panama Canal.  In 1977, Carter completed negotiations begun under Johnson’s administration and signed a treaty slowly restoring control of the Canal Zone to Panama.  Panama assumed complete control over the canal in 2000.Slide15

Carter Again

The events in Nicaragua proved more difficult for Carter.  In 1979, a revolution led by Sandinista forces toppled

Anastasio

Somoza’s corrupt regime.  Carter’s administration attempted to mediate the situation, but the efforts proved fruitless.  The new Sandinista regime soon established ties with Fidel Castro in Cuba.  Republicans in the United States blasted Carter for allowing communists to succeed in Central America.  Slide16

Nicaragua During Cold War

In 1933,

Anastasio

Somoza became dictator

via killing

the previous

ruler.

The Somoza family

reigned

over Nicaragua as hereditary military dictators for

nearly

50

years.

As time

expired,

the rule of the

Somozas

became increasingly

oppressive

and

corrupt.

During the 1960s, the Sandinista Liberation Front was formed, and began insurgency

After an earthquake in 1972, Nixon sent aid, but it was stolen by the

Somozas

and the wealthy profited from the rebuilding

In 1979, the

Somozas

were finally driven out, and the country was governed by a collective leadership by the Marxists

They:

Nationalized foreign owned enterprises

Redistributed land to the poor

Conducted a literacy campaign

Conducted a public health campaignSlide17

Nicaragua Cont.

The U.S. decided to get rid of the Sandinistas by financing and training the Nicaraguan Defense Force (NGF) or the contras

The contras:

Destroyed the cotton and coffee crops

Demolished roads, bridges, schools, and hospitals

Committed

atrocities

The contras were not successful:

They were unpopular

Much of the money they received from the U.S. was for their personal use

The U.S.’s actions were unpopular and made Latin American countries resentfulSlide18

Last one on Nicaragua

In 1986,

Irangate

or the Iran Contra Affair broke out

President Reagan had secretly sold arms to the Iranians in order to secure the release of the hostages in the U.S. embassy in Teheran

The profits had been used, illegally, to finance the contras

Most of those responsible, including President Reagan, who said that he did not remember authorizing the deal, escaped punishment

In April 1990, free elections were held

The U.S. government poured money into the UNO Party

This ensured the defeat of the

Sandanista

governmentSlide19

The Little Guys

Costa Rica – President Oscar Arias Sanchez

continued

neutral and would not support either the Contras or Sandinistas

Honduras – Was a safe haven for the Contras, but Cuba also used the country as a conduit for shipping arms to El Salvador

El Salvador – A civil war between left and right wing forces began in the late 1970s and lasted until 1992

Panama – Leader Manuel Noriega played off all

sides

to suit his needs. A U.S. force captured him after it was discovered he was involved in drug smugglingSlide20

Chile

In 1970, Salvador Allende

Gossens

, a Marxist, won a

astonishing

victory in the national elections

His attempt to bring socialism to Chile was met with alarm by the United States -- which ordered the CIA to help

undermine

the Allende government

Allende's policies -- including nationalization of Chile's copper mines and other key industries -- also contributed to growing economic and political chaos

Chile's military seized power in September 1973

Allende died during the coup, allegedly by his own hand

A repressive junta, led by Gen. Augusto Pinochet, ruled Chile until 1990 -- when civilian, democratic rule was restoredSlide21

Peru during the Cold War

In 1968, Peru's reformist president was

taken out

by a leftist military coup

The new junta instituted social reforms and seized some American-owned businesses, while importing Soviet weapons and advisers

In 1974, Peru expelled some U.S. Embassy and Peace Corps personnel, accusing them of spying for the CIA

A democratic system of government resumed in 1980

Two insurgent communist groups still threaten the

government:

The

Senderos

terrified

both rural and urban

areas; The

Tupac

Amaru

took hostages at Christmas Party at the Japanese ambassador’s residence in 1996Slide22

Paraguay during the Cold War

General

Alfredo

Stroessner

,

supported

by the military and U.S., came to power in Paraguay in 1954 during a military coup

and he

ruled for 35 years

He was himself

taken out

by the military in 1989, replaced by another

general. He

allowed a

comparatively

democratic presidential election in 1993Slide23

Argentina during the Cold War

In 1976, President Isabel Martinez de Peron, widow of dictator Juan Peron, was

kicked out

by the Argentine military

The ensuing three-man junta promised to bring the nation's woeful economy under

control,

while controlling leftist terrorism

Between 1976 and 1981, up to 15,000 persons "disappeared." Recently

exposed

documents revealed that many people were secretly executed by the military, some being dropped alive from aircraft into the sea

After an unsuccessful war with the British over the Falkland Islands, many questioned the military government

Under public pressure, the junta lifted its bans on political parties, paving the way for democratic elections in 1983.Slide24

Uruguay

Beginning in the 1960s, the Tupamaros, a Marxist guerrilla group, began making headlines with their attacks

against the

government targets

The Tupamaros attacks,

joined

with growing economic and political unrest, led to the establishment of a repressive military government in 1973

Uruguay's ruling junta worked toward a transition to democracy, which led to presidential elections in 1984Slide25

Venezuala

U.S. officials believe that Venezuelan dictator Hugo Chavez has lend support to these leftists in Columbia

Ecuador also harbors leftist camps in their country, which Columbia recently raided

Chavez believes that Latin America is in a battle against “North American imperialism”

Relations are continually tense today between the U.S. and mainly Venezuela, but also Ecuador as wellSlide26

Columbia during the Cold War

Leftist insurgencies began in Colombia in the 1970s and have continued into the 1990s

Most communist guerrilla groups ended their rebellions in the early 1990s following the collapse of the Soviet Union

Two Marxist groups, the ELN and FARC, are still in operation and control about 40 percent of Colombian territory

Recent attempts at peace talks between the government and the rebels have failedSlide27

Brazil during the Cold War

The nation's armed forces ousted President Joao

Goulart

in 1964, replacing him with a military government

The regime came under international condemnation several years later for its alleged human rights abuses

In turn, Brazil's military charged that its most outspoken critic, the Catholic Church, was involved in communist-oriented work with the poor

In the mid-1970s, Brazil's continued economic decline brought about a pragmatic decision by the military government: It became the first nation in Central and South America -- besides Cuba -- to recognize the leftist MPLA in Angola's civil war

The decision apparently centered on Brazil's need, at the time, to import Angolan coffee and oil

Brazil returned to an elected, civilian government in 1985