The Presidential Election of 1932 - PowerPoint Presentation

The Presidential Election of 1932
The Presidential Election of 1932

The Presidential Election of 1932 - Description

Gevenny Fernandez Historical Context The Republicans controlled the White House In 1930 the Democrats took over the House of Representatives with a majority of 51 for the first time in over a decade ID: 433699 Download Presentation


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The Presidential Election of 1932

Gevenny FernandezSlide2

Historical Context

The Republicans controlled the White House

In 1930, the Democrats took over the House of Representatives with a majority of 51%, for the first time in over a decade

They were also one seat away from gaining Senate majoritySlide3

Incumbent nominee- Herbert Hoover

8 negative keys according to

The Keys to the White House

According to the keys, need 6 or more negative keys for the incumbent president to be defeated

Negative keys: 1- incumbent-party mandate, 5- short-term economy, 6- long-term economy, 7- policy change, 8- social unrest, 11-foreign/military success, 12- incumbent charisma, 13-challenger charismaSlide4

Historical Context- issues

The Great Depression was the biggest issue of that time

From 1921-1929: many economic advances, which Hoover expected to continue

However, over the next 3 years, the economy and market declined steadily

Prohibition was also a prominent issue

People wanted to bring back alcohol for the tax revenuesSlide5

Historical context- Social climate

Social Unrest

Protests by farmers, unemployed workers, and displaced individuals (“wandering population”) in 1931 and 1932

“Bonus Expeditionary Force”- veterans demanding to be allowed to cash in their veterans’ bonuses set up camp in the capitalSlide6

Historical context

Incumbent president Hoover’s popularity had fallen greatly since his victory in 1928 and people did not think he could handle the economic crisis or prohibition

The Republican party had been dominant for decades

Fourth Party System

Result: “Time for a change” effectSlide7

Party Primaries and Nominations- Democratic Party

Roosevelt had the support of the majority of delegates at the Democratic convention

However, he did not have the 2/3 majority to win the nomination

Main opposition- Smith and John Nance Garner (Speaker of the House in 1931)

First ballot- short by 100 delegates

After 3 ballots, Garner released his delegates

Fourth ballot, Roosevelt won the party nominationSlide8

Party Primaries and Nominations- Republican Party

Hoover was easily re-nominated as the Republican candidate

However, there was a battle over the vice presidential nominee

Vice President Charles Curtis was challenged by James


Curtis wonSlide9

Party Primaries and Nominations

No significant third party nominees

Americans were not interested in third party nominees

They joined the DemocratsSlide10

Candidates- Roosevelt

Well known for being the governor of New York

He had been reelected governor in a landslide in 1930

People still remembered his cousin, Theodore Roosevelt

FDR had been the losing vice presidential nominee in 1920 

Downplayed his polio so that the public would think he was fit to run the country

Polio was seen as a lower class diseaseSlide11

Candidates- roosevelt

Although not that well-known, he was very charismatic

Tried to avoid controversial issues like religion and the KKK

Tried to appeal to everyone, even some republicans

Tried to unite the Democratic party

The Democratic Party was more united during the 1932 election than they had been throughout the whole Fourth Party System, partly due to Roosevelt’s efforts Slide12

Candidates- Hoover

Just months after his inauguration, the Stock Market Crash of 1929 occurred and caused the Great Depression

Most of his presidential term was spent in the depression

Considering Hoover’s commitment to limited government, his policies demonstrated boldness

Hoover did more to fight the economic depression than any previous president

However, it was not enough

Many democratic leaders, including Roosevelt criticized him for not taking it far enoughSlide13

Candidates- hoover

His programs:

Federal loans to businesses and banks

Purchases of farm commodities

Selected increases in federal spending

Banking reform

His policies did little to help the economic situation. Some actually made it worse

1930- Republicans enacted the Hawley-Smoot Tariff, which raised import duties to the highest rates ever

Hoover also imposed a major tax increase, which reduced funds to consumers and investorsSlide14

Candidates- hoover

Very unpopular, to the point where people threw rotten vegetables at him during his speeches around the country, during his campaign

Also unpopular among his own party

His party was divided

Many of the more prominent Republicans did not support him and some even strongly opposed him

Some of them even supported Roosevelt insteadSlide15

General Election Campaign- Roosevelt

Roosevelt accused Hoover of being a socialist for his protectionist policies

Roosevelt attacked Hoover for not improving the economic situation and blamed him for the Great Depression

Roosevelt’s strategy was very successful because of Hoover’s overwhelming unpopularity

Candidate of Change

FDR made a historically significant speech when he personally accepted the Democratic party nomination

Famous words: “I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people”Slide16

General Election Campaign- Roosevelt

In the same speech, Roosevelt promised to "abolish useless offices" and "eliminate unnecessary functions of Government"

Also promised to restore international trade – as opposed to Hoover’s protectionist trade policies

His campaign song was “Happy Days are Here Again” and became the most popular in American political history, while also becoming the Democratic Party’s unofficial anthemSlide17

General Election Campaign- Hoover

He promised recovery, but this quickly became a joke when no improvement was seen throughout his presidency

Hoover could not do much more than to defend himself and promise recovery

Hoover increased taxes and restricted trade

Hoover criticized Roosevelt and said he would only worsen the Depression by decreasing taxes, reducing government intervention in the economy, and promoting international tradeSlide18

Election outcome

FDR won by a landslide

Broke records by winning 472 electoral votes

The region that held the most support for Hoover was the northeast and the New England area

Most of the Rest of the United States, especially in the electoral vote, supported RooseveltSlide19

Election OutcomeSlide20

Election Outcome

Popular Vote

Franklin Roosevelt 22,821,277 57.41%

Herbert Hoover 15,761,254 39.65%

Norman Thomas 884,885 2.23%

William Foster 103,307 0.26%

Other (


) 181,175 0.46%Slide21

Election outcome

Electoral Vote

Franklin Roosevelt 472 88.9%

Herbert Hoover 59 11.1%

Norman Thomas 0 0.0%

William Foster 0 0.0%

Other (


) 0 0.0%Slide22

Historical significance

Realigning election

Many states which were previously Republican became Democratic states

Ended a long era of Republican dominance and started a streak of Democratic dominance (Shift from Fourth Party System to Fifth Party System)

The republicans would not return to the White House until the nomination of war hero Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952

For all but 6 years after 1932, the democrats controlled the House of Representatives, too

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