World War One Start of World War One PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

World War One Start of World War One PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

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Causes of WWI. Imperialism. Nationalism. Alliance System. Militarism. Start of World War One. The southeastern region of Europe was known as a “powder keg” . Many national groups in the region tried to break free from Austria-Hungary. ID: 700379

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World War One

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Start of World War One

Causes of WWIImperialism

NationalismAlliance System

Militarism

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Start of World War One

The southeastern region of Europe was known as a “powder keg” Many national groups in the region tried to break free from Austria-Hungary

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Start of World War One

War BeginsJune 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austro-Hungarian throne) is assassinated by

Gavrilo

Princip

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Start of World War One

Austria Hungary accused Serbia of the assassination and declared war

The alliance system quickly drew more countries into the war

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Start of World War One

Allied Powers (Triple Entente)

Britain

FranceRussiaCentral Powers

Germany

Austria-Hungary

Ottoman Empire

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The Deadliest War

Both sides thought it would be a quick victory, but reality quickly set in

A stalemate started on the Western Front and the battle would drag on for 3 years without either side gaining a clear victory

The Western Front saw the use of trench warfare

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The Deadliest War

New Technology made the war more lethalAirplanesArmored tanks

Machine GunsPoison Gas

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American Neutrality

President Woodrow Wilson wanted to keep the U.S. out of the war.

Americans were split on who to side with

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American Neutrality

American businesses sold supplies to both sides, but a majority of trading was to the Allies and Britain

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American Neutrality

The LusitaniaGerman U-boats practiced

unrestricted warfareMay 7, 1915 a U-boat sank A British passenger ship the Lusitania

1,200 people died (128 were Americans)

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U.S. Enters The War

Wilson won reelection in 1916 and promised to keep the U.S. out of the war

However, Germany kept using its unrestricted warfare

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U.S. Enters The War

Zimmermann TelegramBritain intercepted a telegram from Germany to Mexico

Arthur Zimmermann (German Foreign Minister) proposed that Mexico enter the war on Germany’s side and attack the U.S.

In return Germany would help Mexico get back New Mexico, Texas, and ArizonaSoon after the U.S. entered the war (April 6, 1917)

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U.S. Enters The War

Russian Revolution

Military defeats and food shortages led to an uprising in Russia

The tsar was removed, which made it easier for the U.S. to enter the war because they would not be siding with a tyrant

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Building the Military

The U.S. had a very large navy, but a small army (only 125,000 men)

The U.S. had to mobilize quickly in order to be able to contribute to the war effort

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Building the Military

The U.S. did have men volunteer for service, but not enough and they had to institute a draftSelective Service Act was passed and it required men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register for military draft

By war’s end almost four million Americans had served

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Building the Military

Women in the Military

Women were not subject to the draft

More than 30,000 women volunteered for service and were nurses or performed clerical work

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Building the Military

A diverse forceAbout one in five recruits had been born in foreign lands

About 380,000 African Americans also served during the war

Served in all black unitsAfrican Americans were mainly held out of combat roles and instead were forced to unload ships, work in kitchens, or construction

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Managing the War Effort

Managing Food SuppliesHerbert Hoover

was chosen to head the new Food AdministrationHe had to assure adequate food supplies for both civilians and troops

Hoover urged Americans to conserve valuable food resourcesAmericans observed “wheatless Mondays,” and “meatless Tuesdays”Many grew their own “victory gardens”

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Managing the War Effort

Producing for War

The war increased demands on American industries

Government ordered two million rifles and 130 million pairs of socksThe War Industries Board was set up to oversee production

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Managing the War Effort

Finding WorkersWar brought a Labor Shortage

Men went to war and immigration declinedIn order to fill jobs, businesses turned to women and African Americans to do the work

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Shaping Public Opinion

Calling on Patriotism

President Wilson created the Committee on Public Information, which was to deliver patriotic speeches at places like movie theaters and ball parks

Also created pro-war cartoons and posters

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Shaping Public Opinion

Suppressing Dissent

Government created the Espionage Act of 1917 and Sedition Act of 1918, which could close newspapers or jail individuals that expressed antiwar views

One of the people arrested was Eugene V. Debs

for giving a speech that urged workers not to help in the war effort

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Shaping Public Opinion

Anti-German HysteriaGerman Americans were harassed and assaulted

Some were even tarred and feathered

Many school stopped teaching the German language

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Joining the Fight

The first troops reached Europe in June of 1917

John J. Pershing was chosen to be the commander of American Expeditionary ForceAmerican forces rarely fought together with British or French troops

This was Wilson’s idea, because he wanted to have a greater influence in post war talks

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Setbacks and Advances

Russia Makes Peace

The government that replaced the tsar was struggling to keep Russia in the warTwo million soldiers deserted the front lines

Vladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks (red army) to seize control of the government on November 7, 1917Lenin wanted to lead Russia on a path to communism

In March of 1918 Russia signed a peace agreement (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) and pulled out of the war.

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Setbacks and Advances

March 21, 1918 Germany had unleashed a series of attacks known as the “peace offensive”

Germany managed to break through Allied lines in Belgium and FranceBy June of 1918 Germany was less than 50 miles from Paris

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Setbacks and Advances

Turning the TideAmerican troops were used to stop the German advance and push them out of a forested area called Belleau

After three weeks of intense fighting and heavy causalities the Americans managed to force the Germans out

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Setbacks and Advances

By the fall of 1918 disease and lack of supplies had hurt Germany

September of 1918, Allied forces (over one million American soldiers) had advanced and pushed German forces back

By November of 1918, Germany had decided to seek an armistice.

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The Armistice

A Harsh Armistice France and Britain dictated the terms

Germany had to cancel the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, pull back their troops, and hand over its fleet of U-boatsKaiser Wilhelm II had to step down and Germany became a republic

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The Armistice

The armistice took effect at 11 A.M. on November 11 of 1918

Approximately 10 million military personal were killed (More than had dies in all the wars fought in Europe during the previous 100 years combines)

France 1.3 MillionBritain 900,000Germany 1.6 MillionRussia 1.7 MillionUnited States 50,000

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Shaping the Peace

The Fourteen PointsPresident Wilson’s Plan for peace

Wanted to prevent future warsFreedom of the seas

Free TradeMilitary ReductionSelf Determination (Self Rule)League of Nations

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Peace Conference in Paris

Britain and France wanted to punish Germany and had no interest in Wilson’s fourteen points

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Peace Conference in Paris

Treaty of VersaillesTerritory was taken away from Germany, including colonies

Germany had to accept full responsibility for the warHad to pay huge

reparations to AlliesPlaced limits on the size and nature of Germany’s militaryCreation of the League of Nations

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Battle Over the League of Nations

President Wilson fought for the ratification of the treaty and joining the league of nations

United states had to accept its destiny to lead the world on a new pathMany senators opposed the treaty and joining the League of Nations, including

Henry Cabot LodgeCabot said that membership in the League would restrict the right of the U.S. to act independently in its own interest

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Battle Over the League of Nations

Wilson’s Last BattleIn September of 1919, Wilson tried to gain support for his position by traveling 8,000 miles by train in three weeks and giving 40 speeches

Wilson suffered a stroke on October 2, 1919

November of 1919 the Senate voted to reject the treatyThe absence of the U.S. crippled the League of Nations

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Postwar Troubles

Influenza EpidemicA worldwide epidemic that took more than 500,000 lives in the U.S. alone between 1918 and 1919

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Postwar Troubles

Labor Unrest

Peacetime brought high unemployment, because production was slowing and more people entered the workforce

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Postwar Troubles

Red ScareMany Americans feared that Communists or “Reds” were behind the labor unrests, and that there would be a communist revolution

Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer order immigrants with radical views to be

deportedThese became known as Palmer Raids, which reached their height on January 2, 1920Authorities arrested more than 4,000 people in 33 cities

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