Certificate III / IV in Fitness

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Certificate III / IV in Fitness

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Presentations text content in Certificate III / IV in Fitness


Certificate III / IV in Fitness

Session 6 & 7Applied Personal Training


Session 6 & 7

Todays session will cover the following topics

Body Composition screeningPersonal Training prepare personal training exercise plansimplement training plansimprove client adherence to exercise

review and modify training goals

planning a fitness facilityWeekly reviewQuestion time


Screening clients

When screening clients for their nutrition health status, fitness trainers are attempting to identify a number of common nutritional risk factors

Questions around the following can help identify to what degree a client is potentially at risk:

Unintentional weight loss in last three months

Current appetite and any difficulty taking and retaining food

Issues with diarrhoea or vomiting

Special diets

Multiple recent injuries and history of chronic conditions


Screening clients

Other questions that can help identify risk:

Current eating patterns, how often do you eat breakfast/lunch/dinner, how often do you snack

How much water do you consume daily, what other liquids

Do you eat fast food

Are you vegetarian

Do you take dietary supplements

How would you rate your eating behaviour, are you interested in changing these behaviours

Are you dissatisfied with your body shape


Body composition appraisals

Body Mass Index (BMI) expresses the relationship between weight and height

Does not differentiate between body fat and muscle mass

Calculation: BMI = Weight (kg)/Height (m



Waist-to-hip Ratio (WHR) is the ratio of a person

s waist circumference to their hip circumference

Carrying extra weight around the mid-section (central obesity) has a high correlation to health risks


Body composition appraisals

Waist Circumference (WC) as with the WHR, a high measurement is associated with the risk of developing chronic illness

To determine the WC, palpate the iliac crest and place a measuring device around the abdomen, ensuring you do not compress the skin. WC differs for men and women:

For men:

94 cm or more relates to increased risk

102 cm or more relates to substantially increased risk.

For women:

80 cm or more relates to increased risk

88 cm or more relates to substantially increased risk


Classification of overweight and obesity


Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is a group of diseases that often occur together, it is characterised by the following metabolic conditions:

abdominal obesity: excessive fat deposits in and around the abdominis as identified by waist-to-hip measurements

dyslipidaemia: disorders of the blood fat that may include high TGs, low HDLs and high LDLs, precursors of cardiovascular disease and stroke

increased blood pressure, known as hypertension (WHO defines high blood pressure as systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg or more, or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg or more)

glucose intolerance or insulin resistance, which is a precursor of diabetes.


Determining energy requirements

Energy expenditure is comprised of;

Basal metabolic rate (BMR): the amount of energy expended to maintain life

Males: [66.47 + (13.75 × weight in kg) + (5 × height in cm) – (6.76 × age)]

Females: [655.1 + (9.56 × weight in kg) + (1.85 × height in cm) – (4.68 × age)]

Thermic effect of food: the amount of energy expended to ingest and digest food

Thermal effect of physical activity: the amount of energy expended to perform work


Exercise programming for management of body composition

Following a sequential process will assist fitness trainers in planning exercise programs:

Client induction and screening, including dietary habits and disorders

Development of goals, using short-term goals according to healthy weight ranges in order to develop positive eating behaviours

Outline importance of exercise adherence techniques

Perform assessments

Apply FITT principle

Monitor and record progress

Review goals


Exercise guidelines for obese clients and/or dyslipidaemia

Refer to an AHP if client complains or presents with joint pain or deformity

The age and weight of the individual should determine the appropriate activities and exercise modifications, encourage incidental activity and limit sedentary behaviours

Set realistic goals and contracts including two short training sessions


General dietary requirements of children and adolescents

The role of the trainer in providing dietary guidelines to children and their parents is just that – to provide guidelines only

The recommended carbohydrate intakes are as follows:

three to seven serves per day for 2 to 7 year olds

four to nine serves per day for 8 to 11 year olds, and

four to eleven serves per day for 12 to 18 year olds

A child who has weight problems needs support from their trainer, their social network, and their immediate family


General dietary requirements of children and adolescents

As a trainer, it is important that when working with children you are able to ensure that the program is enjoyable and that the training sessions can be replicated at home

It is also suggested that other members of the family be allowed to be involved in the dietary intervention and training sessions, thereby increasing the social support

Refer to an AHP when conditions include; GI disease, eating disorder, cancer, epilepsy and liver or renal disease


Plan and deliver personal training

The session involves application of the following topics:

prepare personal training exercise plans


training plans


client adherence to exercise


and modify training goals


a fitness



Definition of personal training

Personal trainers provide one-on-one exercise instruction to individuals requiring a program tailored to their specific needs

The planning of personal training session/s should be governed by the client

s goals and expectations

The utilisation of a variety of training modalities that are based on sound training principles expedites goal attainment


Definition of personal training

It is common for the personal trainer to prepare training sessions that emphasise energy expenditure, and functional training that incorporates compound exercises utilising a range of equipment

Functional compound exercises may include:

squats, lunges and bent-legged dead lifts

abdominal exercises

lower back exercises

pushing exercises (e.g. military and bench presses)

pulling exercises (e.g. lat pull-downs and seated rows)


Professional registration

Fitness Australia (FA) has varying categories of registration for exercise professionals

The levels of registration below indicate the vocational roles the industry is currently offering:

gym instructor personal trainer

specialised trainer freestyle group exercise

leader group exercise pre-choreographed group exercise


s instructor children

s trainer

older adult

s instructor older adult

s trainer

aqua instructor aqua trainer



Professional registration

Depending on their qualifications and experience, personal trainers may offer a range of services including (but not limited to) the following:

postural analysis

nutritional analysis and weight management

rehabilitation (pre- and post-surgery)

group exercises and walking and running groups

sport-specific training

behaviour modification

corporate fitness

gym programs that may include one or a combination of resistance training (e.g. strength, power, hypertrophy), cardio (e.g. aerobic, anaerobic, interval and fartlek training) and circuit training


Using public spaces

The demand for public space to conduct fitness training by individual or commercial personal trainers and fitness groups is growing fast. This gives rise to a number of issues:

Public liability: Do you have the required qualifications or insurance?

Equity of access: Is there a potential conflict with regular users? What are the environmental impacts? Is the public land being exploited by commercial operators?

Facility management: Is it fair for councils to collect fees as a mechanism for users to contribute to the upkeep of parks, ovals, etc.?

Noise pollution


Using public spaces

As a consequence of this growth, a number of local governments have developed policies and regulations which aim to:

provide a safe and enjoyable experience for all participants

ensure equity of access to public parks, ovals, reserves, etc.

decrease the impact of commercial fitness operators and personal trainers on the environment

minimise the concern brought on by public liability

Leave no trace!

walk/run on most durable surface, dispose of waste appropriately, respect wildlife, vegetation and other visitors, recycle


A personal trainer’s knowledge base

As a personal trainer you will need to alter your delivery method from being the trainer to the educator, or both

You must be able to employ a range of instructional techniques aimed at modifying or correcting movement

You should be able to demonstrate the following attributes:

Accurate screening, assessment and client goal setting

Developing, implementing, reviewing and modifying plans for clients

Employing instructional technique to achieve the best for the client


A personal trainer’s knowledge base

Learning styles:

Generally people will learn using a combination of three styles: visual, auditory and kinaesthetic

People learn using a combination of styles, often with emphasis on one style

Fitness trainer may achieve a better response from their client if they expose them to different tasks, learning contexts, resources and experiences


Planning personal training programs

When a client hires the services of a personal trainer, questioning in regards to needs and expectations is essential for determining goals

Often an individual

s training or progress will plateau, or they are a distance away from achieving their goals, or they simply require a kick start back into training

For these reasons and many more, personal trainers need to ask a range of questions in order to gain a good understanding of their clients


Planning personal training programs

The interview may be considered one of the more important components of the screening process:

Question appropriately, listen actively, show empathy

Discuss range of services and options

Take responsibility and follow up

Take note of complaints, it is YOUR responsibility to remedy the problem

Work with the client:

Develop rapport

Conduct the screening and develop preliminary goals

Book in for assessment


Planning personal training programs

The pre-exercise screening and risk classification is vital to:

Meet needs of insurers (is the trainer competent in what the client needs)

Determine trainer challenges such as time constraints and location

Make sure that the client fully understands what they are entering into

The trainer checklist at interview:


Waivers and contracts

Informed consent

Testing procedures


Planning personal training programs

Determining a client

s risk:

A pre-exercise screening tool is designed for exercise professionals to use when evaluating the category of risk clients pose before embarking on an exercise program

The use of the Adult Pre-Exercise Screening Tool helps to classify clients who are either at low, moderate or high risk

If you are unsure if you should proceed use the following indicators:


medical conditions that may be contraindicated to exercise, and consequently will exclude the client from exercise

* any risk factors associated with the cardiovascular system

* significant disease symptoms that may be exacerbated by exercise

* special requirements of clients when exercising

* any other sign or symptom that may place the client at increased risk of adverse health

status when exercising


Planning personal training programs

Risk factors are broken into three groups; non-modifiable, modifiable and lifestyle factors

Non-modifiable: age, family history, gender, ethnicity

Modifiable (chronic conditions): CHD, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, asthma, COPD, renal disease, oral disease

Lifestyle: overweight, sedentary, stress, smoking, alcohol

Trainers should become familiar with signs and symptoms associated with risk factors such as:

Breathing difficulty and cough, tightness in chest, dizziness and fainting

Swelling, calf pain with exercise, fatigue after exercise


Planning personal training programs

A history of the client taken before training should include:

Lifestyle questions: motivation to exercise, obstacles and barriers to exercise, history of compliance to previous attempts to exercise, exercise experience, current and recent condition and injury status

Training status: is the client currently exercising? How much? When?

It is critically important that personal trainers take into consideration a client

s genuine training needs. Doing a Training Needs Analysis is vital, and can include:

Biomechanical evaluation of sport, activity of exercise

Physiological requirement of sport, activity of exercise

Injury assessment of sport, activity of exercise


Fitness testing

Fitness testing is used to:

measure health- and skill-related components of fitness

gather baseline data to compare with normative values

establish goals so that a safe and effective training program can be developed

Procedure for testing:

Get medical clearance if needed

Consider the risk: is the test appropriate, are you qualified

Inform client of procedure

Reassure the client during the test

Be prepared

Provide feedback on result


Fitness testing

Order of testing for general clients:

resting tests

non-fatiguing tests

muscular strength tests

local muscular endurance tests and submaximal tests

Order of testing for advanced clients:

the above tests

adding: agility, maximum power and strength tests, sprint tests, anaerobic capacity tests and maximal or submaximal aerobic capacity tests


Fitness testing

The following reasons must cause premature end to fitness testing:

cardiac concerns

breathing concerns

request by the client to stop testing

blood pressure concerns

signs of shock


Implement training plans

When discussing a program with a client it is recommended that you:

further develop the client file

provide and explain to the client the outcomes of the fitness assessment


each agreement on SMART goals

explain the program and its delivery method

explain the instructional approach to be used

establish a reassessment date for fitness testing

book the client in for the first session


Implement training plans

Use the following steps when planning each workout:

Step 1: Think of movement as an opportunity, not an inconvenience

Step 2: Be active every day in as many ways as you can

Step 3: Put together at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most, preferably all, days

Step 4: If you can, also enjoy some regular, vigorous activity for extra health and fitness


Implement training plans

ACSM and AHA guidelines for resistance exercise for general health benefits (for healthy adults under the age of 65) are as follows:

Exercise twice each week

Do 8 to 10 resistance training exercises

Do 8 to 12 repetitions

Fatigue affects technique and poor technique increases the chance of injury

Do resistance training with machine and free weights


Implement training plans

Training sessions should include:


stimulus phase (resistance training, cardiovascular conditioning, flexibility training)


The recognition of signs and symptoms of fatigue and blood lactate accumulation will allow the personal trainer to adjust exercise intensities accordingly.


Implement training plans

The following are signs and symptoms of muscle fatigue:

muscle weakness


reduced activity levels

weak grips

localised muscular weakness

lack of attention


Limiting factors in energy pathways

The exercise intensity and its duration are the determining factors for the body

s energy pathway selection

The body will supply energy for metabolic requirements and muscle contraction via three pathways:

anaerobic system: does not require oxygen for the production of energy and comprises two systems:

* the ATP-PC (or phosphate system)

* lactic acid system

aerobic system (or oxidative system): utilises oxygen in the production of energy; when oxygen is present cellular respiration is efficient, producing the most ATP per molecule of glucose


Improve client adherence to exercise

Consider motivation as the intensity of effort towards a particular direction. For the personal trainer and the client, it requires channelling of mental and physical forces in an attempt to accomplish an action or goal

When faced with a reticent client read literature on sport and/or motivational psychology to broaden your skills in:

demonstrating skills


goal setting

client confidence via self-appraisal


Improve client adherence to exercise

In order to have your client safely and competently execute exercise you must be able to demonstrate effectively via:

Demonstrate safe and appropriate use of fitness equipment at normal speed and without commentary

Explain and highlight the key points as you go and how each exercise is relevant to the client

s goals

Position your client in an optimal viewing position so they can see the demonstration from different angles

Evaluate and provide feedback following a period of practice


Improve client adherence to exercise

Feedback refers to a personal trainer

s ability to provide ongoing information in a timely manner. Feedback should encourage:



future learning and development

The personal trainer has two main forms of feedback at their disposal: formal and informal.

Formal feedback relates to premeditated tasks, occurs at scheduled times and covers specific areas

Informal feedback occurs on a regular basis


Improve client adherence to exercise

Following are the features of good feedback:

It should be well timed

It should be specific

It should be constructive

It should be given in an appropriate setting

It should allow for client input


Improve client adherence to exercise

Motivational strategies to increase client adherence by encouraging:

Self-appraisal so clients rate themselves on areas such as training, accomplishment, strengths, weaknesses, difficulties

Working out with a partner or as part of a group

Keeping a journal

Developing indicators of progress or short-term goals

Rewarding themselves

Being organised – have their training gear ready for the next day

Establishing a genuine, deep desire, not an imposed one for a healthier lifestyle


Improve client adherence to exercise

Other means of improving a client

s adherence to exercise are as follows:

Identify what external factors and influences a client will need to deal with while developing an exercise habit

Identify situational dilemmas (e.g. non-preferred times, travelling workers, exam times for students, influx of tax returns for accountants)

Obtain as much information as possible in the initial screening

Set realistic goals that contribute to lifelong behavioural change

Undertake relevant fitness appraisals

Use a vision board: ask the client to collect images that inspire them to act


Planning a fitness facility

A number of factors need to be considered when designing the layout of a facility, including the following:

Is the facility a gym or a small personal training studio?

What is the predicted maximum attendance at any one time?

What types of programs are to be delivered?

What are the occupational health and safety issues?

Does the facility comply with manufacturers

requirements, legislative requirements and Australian Standards for the use of electrical equipment?

What equipment should be purchased and from where?

Are there any relevant local council requirements?


Planning a fitness facility

Placement of pieces of equipment needs to be structured so that there is adequate space between them, allowing for movement around the equipment without impacting on other clients

exercise space or safety

Another issue in facility design is the placement of mirrors, water stations, hand sanitisers and disinfectant spray:

Mirrors need to be positioned to ensure that clients are able to observe their technique without compromising it

Water stations, hand sanitisers and disinfectant sprays need to be easily accessible but away from doorways and electrical equipment


Planning a fitness facility

Do your homework before making a purchase to reduce the possibility of making purchase errors

Consider the following points, and then determine what section of the consumer market you are looking at:

Who is going to be using the equipment

Will the equipment fit safely in the space available? What features do you really need in each piece of equipment?

What does the warranty cover?

What about customer service?

Is the dealer reputable?

Will they deliver and install?


Planning a fitness facility

Regularly check equipment:

Stop using if it rattles or doesn

t work smoothly

Check electrical cords for good condition, are they Tested and Tagged?

Check emergency shut-off

Install and Maintain to manufacturer specification

Ensure a good stable surface


Take home message from todays session:

Do you understand the importance of Body Composition screening?Do you understand how to prepare personal training exercise plans?Are you able to implement training plans and improve client adherence to exercise?Do you understand how to review and modify training goals?





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