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Application Report SPRABA December  Digital Signal Processor DSP for Portable Ultrasound Application Report SPRABA December  Digital Signal Processor DSP for Portable Ultrasound

Application Report SPRABA December Digital Signal Processor DSP for Portable Ultrasound - PDF document

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Application Report SPRABA December Digital Signal Processor DSP for Portable Ultrasound - PPT Presentation

ABSTRACT Ultrasound imaging is noninvasive realtime imaging tool that is finding increased usage in hospitals and clinics Ultrasound technology uses high frequency sound waves to reflect off changes in acoustic impedances between tis ID: 31233

ABSTRACT Ultrasound imaging

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ApplicationReportSPRAB18A–December2008DigitalSignalProcessor(DSP)forPortableUltrasoundRamaPailoorandDevPradhan..........................................................................................................ABSTRACTUltrasoundimagingisanon-invasivereal-timeimagingtoolthatis Contents1Introduction..........................................................................................22PortableUltrasoundSystem......................................................................23DSPBasedPortableUltrasoundSolution.......................................................54SystemCharacteristics............................................................................8 ,DSP/BIOSaretrademarksofTexas Introduction2PortableUltrasoundSystem2.1DrivingRequirementsforaPortableSystem ultrasoundsystemsareconsideredtobeultrasoundsystemsthatweigharound10lbsorless,andcanrunonbatteries.Theybegantoappearinthemarketplaceinthelate90sandhaveseenaremarkablegrowthinsalesintherecentyears.ThisgrowthhasbeenadirectresultoftheirapplicabilityinareassuchasICUs,emergencymedicine,regionalanesthesiaandbattlefield.DSPsandSoCsarespeciallydesignedsingle-chipdigitalmicrocomputersthatprocessdigitizedelectricalsignalsgeneratedbyelectronicsensors(e.g.,cameras,transducers,microphones,etc.)thatwillhelptorevolutionizetheareaofdiagnosticultrasoundimaging.Adiagnosticultrasoundimagingsystemgeneratesandtransmitsacousticwavesandcapturesreflectionsthatarethentransformedintovisualimages.Thesignalprocessingonthereceivedacousticwavesincludeinterpolation,decimation,datafilteringandreconstruction.ProgrammableDSPsandSOCs,witharchitecturesdesignedforimplementingcomplexmathematicalalgorithmsinreal-time,canefficientlyaddressalltheprocessingneedsofsuchasystem.ThefollowinginformationintroducestheconceptofacompleteportableultrasoundsystemsolutionbasedonTexasInstruments'(TI)semiconductorcomponents,developmenttools,andsoftwaresolutions.Additionally,thevariousconceptsthatoutlinetheinherentadvantagesofaDSPandaSoCinaportableultrasoundsystem-efficientsignalprocessing,lowerpowerconsumptionandlowercost,allleadingtobetterultrasounddiagnosticimaging-willalsobecovered.Thekeydriverrequirementsforaportableultrasoundsystemarethesamewithanyportabledevice:size,weight,batterylife,costandperformance.OEMsaremakingtrade-offsintheseareas,forexample,providingjustabasicimagingsystemwithlessfeaturesbutwithmorebatterylife,(e.g.,8-channelblackandwhitesystemsvs.moresophisticated128channelcolorsystemsthatwouldneedtobere-chargedmoreoften).Thesizeoftheportablesystemvariesfromlaptopsizedsystemstohandhelds.ThesesizelimitationsaredrivingtheneedformoresystemintegrationonthesupportingSoCsandmoreautomaticimageenhancementfeaturesduetofewerfinecontrols.Therequirementsforportablesystemsisalsobeingdrivenfromgeographieswheretheinfrastructureismoreruralandaccesstothelargermoresophisticatedimagingsystemsislimited,andwherecliniciansmustnowtakethesystemtothepatient.Thismakescostacriticalfactoraswell.DigitalSignalProcessor(DSP)forPortableUltrasoundSPRAB18A–December2008SubmitDocumentationFeedback CompleteSystemView Front-EndProcessing UltrasoundSystembasicfunctionalbuildingblocksofadiagnosticultrasoundimagingsystemare:thetransducer,processingblocksneededforimageformation,systemcontrollerandpowersupplymoduleasshowninFigure1.Figure1.UltrasoundImagingSystemFunctionalBlocksDelineationofsignalpathoperationsasfront-end,mid-endandback-endprocessingvariesfromonemanufacturertoanother.Italsodepends,tosomedegree,onthetypeoftechnologyusedforcarryingouttheseoperations:application-specificintegratedcircuit(ASIC),field-programmablegatearray(FPGA),DSPorPC.Ultrasoundimageformationbegins,inwhatiscommonlyreferredtoasthefrontend,usingpulse-echotechnique.Figure2showsthemaincomponentsofthisfunctionalblock.Figure2.ComponentsofFront-EndProcessing–December2008DigitalSignalProcessor(DSP)forPortableUltrasound3SubmitDocumentationFeedback Mid-EndProcessing UltrasoundSystemtransmitbeamformerisresponsiblefortheorderlypulse-excitationoftransducerelements,whichresultsinemissionofacousticwavesintotheregionofinterest.Immediatelyfollowingthis,thetransmit/receive(T/R)switchispositionedtoputthefrontendinreceivemode.Transducerelementstransformthereflectionsorechoesintocorrespondingelectricalsignals.Theanalogfrontend(AFE)properlyamplifiesthesesignalsandconvertsthemintodigitaldatastreamsforfurtherprocessing.Byapplyingdynamicdelaysintothesedatastreams,thereceivebeamformercombinesthemtoformascanline,arepresentationoftheregionofinterestalongagivenlineofsight.Thisprocessisrepeatedeithersequentiallyorsimultaneouslytoformmultiplescanlinestocoveraregionofinterest.Thefront-endcontrollerisresponsibleforcontrollingthetimingandsequencingoftransmitandreceivebeams.Samplingratesusedforanalog-to-digital(A/D)conversioninthefrontendcanvaryfrom16MHzto50MHzdependingonsystemrequirements.Mostultrasoundimagingsystemsintroducedinrecentyearsarecapableofthreemajormodesofoperation:B-mode,color-flowandDoppler.B-modeoperationresultsinagrayscaleimagethatisusedforexaminingtissuestructuresandorgans.Color-flowoperationresultsinacolor-codeddisplayofspatialdistributionofmeanvelocityofbloodflowsuper-imposedongrayscaleimage.Dopplerprocessingproducesscrollingdisplayofbloodflowvelocitydistributionatauserspecifiedlocation.Somesystemsarecapableofdisplayingallthreemodessimultaneously.Figure3.Mid-EndProcessingFigure3showsmajorelementsofthemid-processingsectionforthethreemajormodesofoperation.CommontoallthreeistheinitialstagewherebeamformedRFdatagetsdownconvertedtobaseband,filtered,andinmostcases,decimated.Whatfollowsthisdependsonthemode.ForB-mode,itisenvelopedetectionandlogarithmiccompression.Whatneedstotakeplaceforcolor-flowisalotmorecomputeintensiveinvolvinghighpassfilteringofensemblesofscanlinestoremovecontributionsfromvesselwallortissuemotion.Outputofthewallfilteristhenusedtoestimatepower,meanvelocity,andturbulence.Dopplerprocessinginvolvesamuchsimplerwallfilterandestimationofvelocitydistributionusingshort-timeFouriertransformtechniques.DopplerprocessingalsoproducesastereoaudiosignalrepresentingtheDopplerspectrum.DigitalSignalProcessor(DSP)forPortableUltrasoundSPRAB18A–December2008SubmitDocumentationFeedback Back-EndProcessing SystemControllerandMMI3DSPBasedPortableUltrasoundSolution3.1AdvantagesofDSPandSOCsinaPortableSystem BasedPortableUltrasoundSolution4showsanexampleofwhattakesplaceinthebackend.Figure4.Back-EndProcessingB-modeandcolor-flowestimatesaresubjectedtotemporalandspatialprocessingtoreducenoiseandenhancefeaturesofinterest.ScanconversionistheoperationwhereB-modeandcolor-flowestimatesareconvertedtodisplayrasterdata,pixelswith1:1aspectratio.Whencolor-flowison,B-modeandcolor-flowpixelshavetobeblendedtoproduceasingleimage.Thisblendingistypicallybasedonapplicationdependentthresholds.Justlikemostembeddedsystems,ultrasoundimagingsystemsneedasystemcontrollertocarryoutfunctionssuchas:·Configureandcontrolthesignalpath·Handleuserinputeventsandtakeappropriateactions·Monitoracousticpressureandintensitylevelsandensuresafetyofpatients·Inthecaseofportablesystems,carryoutsmartpowermanagementtomaximizescanningtimeinasinglecharge.·Storeandrecallimageclips·RunapplicationstoallowyoutomakeclinicallyrelevantmeasurementsonacquiredimagesequencesTraditionally,ultrasoundsystemshaveusedacombinationofASIC,FPGA,DSPandPCforcapturingandprocessingbeamformedultrasoundimagesandrenderingthemforvisualdisplay.Thesesystemswerecart-basedsystemsthatpluggedintoawallforpowerandtypicallydidnotmovefromlocationtolocation.Withultrasoundimagingsystemsnowgoingportable,thereisaneedforasimpleruserinterfaceandlowerpowerconsumption.Thesystemsalsoneedtoberugged,upgradeableinthefield,andhavegoodconnectivity(maybeevenwireless).Thesmallerformfactorontheportablesystemsalsomeansthattheyarenotexpectedtohavefeaturesneededfordetailedmanualmeasurementsandanalysis,andthatmoremustbedonewiththelimitedcontrolsavailable.DSPsandSOCstodayarepervasiveinhandheldportabledevices;theirstrengthistheirhighperformancepermWofpowerandthehighlevelofsystemintegrationforsupportfornearlyallstandardperipheraldevices(e.g.,USBstorage,LCDdisplay,Ethernet,802.11,etc.).CouplethatwiththeflexibilitytheyprovideviaprogrammabilitytosupportmoreintelligentprocessingandimageenhancementanalyticsanditiseasytoseehowDSPsandSOCsenableaverypowerfulsolutioninaportableultrasoundsystem.MostDSPsandSOCsarealsowellsupportedbyreal-timeoperatingsystemsthatabstractoutsomeofthecomplexitiesofthehardware,andprovideamorefamiliarsoftwaredevelopmentenvironmentthathavebeentunedtosupportapplicationswithreal-timedeterministicrequirementsandlimitedmemoryresources.–December2008DigitalSignalProcessor(DSP)forPortableUltrasound5SubmitDocumentationFeedback ExampleSystemBlockDiagrams BasedPortableUltrasoundSolutionfollowingexamplesshowhowTexasInstruments'DSPandSoCdevicescanbeusedinportableultrasoundsystems.Figure5showssystemblockdiagramhighlightingtheuseofTMS320DM648andTMS320DM6446forcarryingoutmid-end,back-end,andsystemcontrollerfunctions.Figure5.DM648+DM6446BlockDiagramThecombinationoftwoC64x+™coresandvideo/imagingcoprocessors(VICP)offercompellingcomputecapabilitytoaddresstheneedsofthethreemodesofultrasoundoperation.TheprimaryroleoftheARM9istoruntheoperatingsystemuponwhichthesystemcontrollerfunctionsanduserinterfacecanbeimplemented.SignalProcessor(DSP)forPortableUltrasound6SPRAB18A–December2008SubmitDocumentationFeedback Real-TimeOperatingSystems(RTOS) BasedPortableUltrasoundSolution6showsanexampleofasystemrequiringhigherinput/output(I/O)bandwidthandcomputationsthanthesystemshowninFigure5.ATMS320C6455DSPisusedhere,withawiderEMIFAbus,whichallowshigherinputdatarates.LargerL2memoryandhigheroperatingclockfrequencyarethemajorcontributorstoincreasedcomputecapability.Inthisexample,theOMAP3530playsthedualroleofsystemcontrollerandback-endprocessor.Figure6.C6455+OMAP3530BlockDiagramTomakeapplicationdevelopmenteasier,moreportablefromonehardwareplatformtoanother,andfastertomarket,embeddedsystemstodayaregravitatingmoreandmoretooff-the-shelfembeddedoperatingsystems.OnecanleveragethemanymanyearsofeffortthatRTOSdevelopershaveputintomakethishardwareabstractionlayermorefeaturerich,morerobust,andmoreefficientinthesupportfunctionsoftheapplication.Besidesstandardoperatingsystemfeatureslikemulti-tasking,memorymanagement,interrupt,andeventhandling,embeddedoperatingsystemshavesomespecialcharacteristicsthatdifferentiatethemfromnon-embeddedOSes(likeWindowsForexample,embeddedOSesareusuallyconfigurabletoallowyoutoaddorremovefeaturesasneeded.Theynormallyhaveasmallmemoryfootprint,higherpredictability(realtime)withapre-emptivepriority-basedschedulingscheme,efficienttaskswitchinglatency,lightweight,predictableinter-processcommunicationmechanisms,powermanagementsupport,etc.Thesearekeyneedsforembeddedsystemsthatareoftenrealtimeinnature,costconscious,andpowerefficient.Inaportableultrasoundsystemmanyofthesefeaturescomeintoplay.Specifically,thereal-timenatureofanultrasoundsystemmakesitimportanttobeabletocaptureultrasoundimages,processthem,andrenderthemtobeseenonascreeninstantly.Systemstartup(boottime)isexpectedtobefast(10seconds)andthelatency,whenswitchingfromB-modeestimationtocolorflowandDopplerprocessing,isexpectedtobeminimal(1second).Longbatterylife(8hours)andpowersavingsmode,withquickwake-upcapability,isanimportantrequirement.SupportforstandardperipheralslikeUSBstorage,printers,LCDdisplays,etc.,isamust.AlloftheseneedsarewellsupportedinmostofftheshelfRTOSavailableonTISOCdevices.–December2008DigitalSignalProcessor(DSP)forPortableUltrasound7SubmitDocumentationFeedback SystemCharacteristics4.1Benchmarks References CharacteristicsfollowingsectionsprovideC64x+cyclecountestimatesforseveralkeyfunctionsneededinmid-endandback-endprocessing.Theseestimatesarebasedeitheronstand-alonebenchmarkingorbenchmarksfromTI’sdsplibandimglib.Formoredetailedanalysisofseveralfunctionsusedforsignalpathimplementation,seeEfficientImplementationofUltrasoundColorDopplerAlgorithmsonTexasInstruments’C64x+TMPlatforms(SPRAB11 Thenumbersprovidedheregiveyouanideaaboutcomputepowerneededforeachmodeofoperation.Actualperformancenumbersmayvarydependingonsystemdesignandusageofsharedmemoryresources.Table1givesasummaryofCPUusageestimatesforvariousprocessingblocksdescribedinprevioussections.ThenumbersareforaC64x+corerunningat1GHz..Table1.KeyBenchmarksCPUUsageAssumptionsRFDemod£16%RFsamplingrate=50MHzImagingdepth~=25cm(scanlineinterval=325ms)FilterLength(L)=16(#oftapsperoutputsample)Numberofoutputsamples=512(decimationfactor(S)=32)Numberofcyclesperoutputsample=S+(0.625L+S)=74Color-FlowWall£5%Ensemblelength(N)=10FilterNumberofscanlinesperframe=128Numberofcolorflowsamplesperscanline=256Framerate=30HzNumberofcyclesperoutputsample=NCPUUsage=5%Color-Flow£6%Ensemblelength(N)=10ParameterNumberofscanlinesperframe=128EstimationNumberofcolorflowsamplesperscanline=256Framerate=30HzNumberofcycles/outputforcorrelationcomputation=(N+1)/2Numberofcycles/outputforvelocityestimation=37(approximate)Numberofcycles/outputforturbulenceestimation=16(approximate)SpectralDoppler£1%PulseRepetitionFrequency(P)=20kHzWallFilterWallFilterLength(L)=64Numberofcyclesperoutput=2*((L/4+4)+15)(dsplibbenchmark)SpectralDoppler£1%EstimationofvelocitydistributionistypicallydoneusingShortTimeFourierTransformEstimationtechniques.FFTSize=256RateofFFTcomputation=1kHzBenchmarkfor256point16x32complexFFT=1827cycles(intrinsicCversion)Numberofcyclesneededforwindowingandpowerestimation=512perspectralcolumn.ScanConversion£10%Sizeofoutputrasterusedfordisplayingultrasoundimage:512x512AcquisitionFrameRate:30HzThomasL.Szabo,DiagnosticUltrasoundImaging,ISBN-13:978-0-12-680145-3·TMS320C64x+DSPLittle-EndianDSPLibraryProgrammer’sReference(SPRUEB8 ·TMS320C64x+DSPImage/VideoProcessingLibrary(v2.0)Programmer'sReference(SPRUF30 ·SignalProcessingOverviewofUltrasoundSystemsforMedicalImaging(SPRAB12 ·EfficientImplementationofUltrasoundColorDopplerAlgorithmsonTexasInstruments’C64x+™Platforms(SPRAB11 DigitalSignalProcessor(DSP)forPortableUltrasoundSPRAB18A–December2008SubmitDocumentationFeedback ATMS320DigitalSignalProcessorPlatform ATMS320DSPfamilyfromTIoffersthewidestselectionofsignalprocessorsavailableanywhere,withabalanceofgeneral-purposeandapplication-specificprocessorstosuityourneeds.Therearethreedistinctinstructionsetarchitecturesthatarecompletelycode-compatiblewithinthefollowingplatforms:·Highperformancemulti-coreDSPplatforms·HighperformancesinglecoreDSPplatforms·PowerefficientDSPandSOCplatformsFigureA-1.RoadmapforDSPArchitectures–December20089SubmitDocumentationFeedback BeXpressDSP™SoftwareandDevelopmentTools B’sreal-timeeXpressDSPsoftwareanddevelopmenttoolstrategyincludesthreetightlyknitingredientsthatempowerdeveloperstotapthefullpotentialofTMS320™DSPs:·Theworld’smostpowerfulDSPintegrateddevelopmenttools:CodeComposerStudio IDE·eXpressDSPSoftwareincluding:–Scalable,real-timesoftwarefoundation:DSP/BIOSReal-TimeOperatingSystem(OS)Software Foundation Standardsforapplicationinteroperabilityandreuse:TMS320DSPAlgorithmStandard–xDAISand DesignreadycodethatiscommontomanyapplicationstogetyoustartedquicklyonDSPdesign:eXpressDSPFrameworkSoftware AgrowingbaseofTIDSP-basedproductsfromTI’sDSPThirdPartyProgram eXpressDSPcompliantproductsthatcanbeeasilyintegratedintosystems.EachelementisdesignedtosimplifyDSPprogrammingandmovedevelopmentfromacustomcraftedapproachtoanewparadigmofinteroperablesoftwarefrommultiplevendorssupportedbyaworldwideinfrastructure.Therehasbeenanexplosivegrowthinreal-timeapplicationsdemandingthereal-timeprocessingpowerofTIDSPs.eXpressDSPenablesinnovatorsandinventorstospeednewproductstomarketandturnideasintoreality.Previouslyunimaginedapplications,includingvirtualreality,medicalimaging,autonavigation,digitalaudio,andInternettelephonynowrelyonthecrucialreal-timecomputingpowerthatcanonlybefoundinaDSP.DSKandEVMDSPstarterkits(DSK)andevaluationmodules(EVM)aretoolsthatallowdeveloperstotesttheircodeinhardwarebeforeactuallybuildingprototypedesigns.DSKsareavailableforTMS320C6455andTMS320C6713DSP.EVMsareavailablefortheTMS320DM6446,TMS320C6474,TMS320DM648andOMAP35xxSOCs.SPRAB18A–December2008SubmitDocumentationFeedback 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