Artificial Insemination Strategies - PowerPoint Presentation

 Artificial Insemination Strategies
 Artificial Insemination Strategies

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By Rachael DuBall amp Michelle Clennon Artificial Insemination Typically used on couples with fertility problems Infertility is defined as the failure of conception after one year of a couple trying to get pregnant Infertility may occur for many reasons ID: 775483 Download Presentation

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Slide1

Artificial Insemination Strategies

By Rachael DuBall & Michelle Clennon

Slide2

Artificial Insemination

Typically used on couples with fertility problemsInfertility is defined as the failure of conception after one year of a couple trying to get pregnant. Infertility may occur for many reasons:Men with a low number of sperm, any type of sexual mishaps or ejaculation dysfunction, or any unexplained infertility issuesWomen with any cervical, endometrial, or unexplained infertility issuesWebMD defines artificial insemination as the act of a doctor inserting sperm directly into a woman’s cervix, fallopian tubes, or uterus.The most common forms of artificial insemination are IVF(in vitro fertilization) & IVG(in vitro gametogenesis).

Slide3

Fun Facts

Approx. 10% of couples have infertility problems.The success rate for women who become pregnant with one cycle varies from 10-20%.The percent of live births from IVF was approx. 22.4%.The avg cost of a cycle of in vitro fertilization is about $12,400 (depending on insurance & other factors.

Slide4

In vitro fertilization

Procedure where women’s eggs are extracted from her body, fertilized outside of her body(more than likely a petri dish/in the lab), & later replanted into the uterus of that woman.

Lengthy & expensive process, usually not the first choice when infertility strikes.

Just 5% of couples with infertility problems look to IVF for a solution, yet since IVF (along with other strategies) was introduced to the US, there have been more than 200,000 babies made.

The woman usually receives some type of hormone treatment; progesterone to help the embryo stick in the uterine lining, some receive a GnRH antagonist to help avoid over stimulation of the ovaries

Slide5

IVF continued...

Mature eggs are retrieved & incubated in a petri dish until the sperm gets paired with it. Once they get injected together, within 12 to 48 hours fertilization should happen. From there, the embryo is observed in its first stages of division while the mother is prepped for the implantation. The embryo gets implanted, as a blastocyst, into the uterus to wander & hopefully to stick to the uterine wall.

Slide6

Pros of IVF

Helps couples who can’t have children by themselves, have a child who is biologically theirs.

The fertilization is more likely to have a higher success rate during pregnancy due to the use of the best eggs/sperm available.

IVF actually has the highest success rate out of all the assisted reproductive technology (ART) methods so far.

Slide7

Cons of IVF

The most common problem with IVF is the chance of multiple embryos developing & being born. Implanting multiple embryos during this process is common to increase the chance of having a good pregnancy. However, this can lead to multiple other problems including…

Misscarraige

Premature labor/OB problems

Ovarian cancer/hyperstimulation syndrome

Birth defects

& more...

Along with those issues, genetic abnormalities can become present, however there are different techniques used to help diagnose them like preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), flourescence in situ hybridization (FISH), & others.

Slide8

Issues Regarding IVF

In 1987, the Roman Catholic church put out a statement rejecting IVF for three main reasons:For breaking the connection between the act of making love & making a baby…For the idea of making a child outside of the marital family (if someone other than the husband donated), taking away the sacred thought of reproduction in a marriage…For the loss of possible human life by eliminating any embryos not used in the implantationMorally, there are problems with the act of freezing these sperm, eggs, etc. to use in other future pregnancies.Ethically, there are also issues with the birth of multiple children due to IVF, increasing the overall birth rate/overpopulation along with creating more possible babies than needed, the great sum of money to pay for IVF, & the choosing of the embryo because of sex.

Slide9

In vitro gametogenesis

-The process of extracting reproductive cells (eggs & sperm) from human stem cells. This allows for a numerous supply of eggs or sperm in the lab for certain infertility issues.

This process is not yet able to be done in humans due to many different ethical and social issues. Scientists and researchers have gotten pretty far in researching IVG in mice though.

Slide10

Pros of IVG

Allows scientists to track, identify and intervene a disease in the very early stages, sometimes even before fertilization occurs

Able to make numerous amounts of gametes even if the male or female is completely infertile

Could decrease or eliminate the need for egg and sperm donors

Slide11

Social Issues of IVG

People could feel empowered to be able to create their ideal baby (designer baby)Many are against the thought of being able to make the gametes for research and/or therapeutic use“Embryo Farming” may lead to an increase in devaluation of human life Religious objection is because of the fact that there are so many embryos made that some are destroyed if they aren’t being used

Slide12

Legal Issues of IVG

U.S actually has a law against the public funding of embryo creation for research

Not actually feasible but the possibility for 3 different people putting their gametes into one embryo is there

That then brings up the question on who is legally the parent and what roles would they have

Slide13

Sources

http://www.webmd.com/infertility-and-reproduction/guide/artificial-insemination#1

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3590899/

http://www.futurity.org/in-vitro-gametogenesis-ivg-1334182-2/

http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/9/372/eaag2959.full

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp065743

http://academic.eb.com.wsuproxy.mnpals.net/levels/collegiate/article/in-vitro-fertilization/42232

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/infertility

http://pregnancy.lovetoknow.com/wiki/IVF:_In_Vitro_Fertilization

http://www.sciencedirect.com.wsuproxy.mnpals.net/science/article/pii/S1751721413000870?np=y&npKey=772842978e26efb0b80e996b438d2c43137d2d93fc9b3396ae8666f0bc51b7f3

http://www.michiganinfertilityexpert.com/blog/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-ivf-treatments

http://fertilityinstitute.com/treatments/in-vitro-fertilization/benefits-of-ivf/

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