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1 Dr. Maria Zahiri

2. C. onnective . tissue. Dr. Maria . Zahiri. 3. Dr. Maria Zahiri. . Four . basic tissue types. :. E. pithelial . tissue (surfaces and glands). Connective tissue. . Muscle . tissue (contractile cells).

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1 Dr. Maria Zahiri






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Slide1

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Dr. Maria Zahiri

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C

onnective

tissue

Dr. Maria

Zahiri

3

Dr. Maria ZahiriSlide4

Four

basic tissue types

:

E

pithelial tissue (surfaces and glands)Connective tissue

Muscle

tissue (contractile cells)N

ervous tissue

4

Dr. Maria ZahiriSlide5

Main

roles of connective tissue

Mechanical support

binding cells into tissues

Binding tissues to each other

Protection and Defense

Serving as a medium for exchange

Storage (water, ions, minerals, Growth factor)

Energy supply

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Zahiri

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What's the contents of connective tissue?

connective tissue

cells

ECM

(Extra cellular matrix)

Fibers

Ground substance

Fluid

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Classification

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CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER

SPECIALISED CONNECTIVE TISSUES

adipose tissue

haemopoietic

tissue (bone marrow, lymphoid tissue)

blood

bone and cartilageSlide8

The cells

Cells of connective tissue

Mesenchyme

Adult

Fixed Cells

Fibroblast

Macrophage

Adipose cells

Mast cells

Undifferentiated

mesenchyme

cell

Wandering Cells

Lymphocytes

Plasma cells

Blood

cells

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Mesenchymal

cells

Small

fusiform

or

stellate

cells

Have

delicate

chromatin

pattern

Pluripotential

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Fibroblast

are most common cells of C.T.

Produce and secrete ECM

Active fibroblast has more cytoplasm include of developed RER, Golgi apparatus and

euchromatic

nucleus = activated (wound healing)

Inactive fibroblast (

Fibrocyte

) has flattened nuclei, sparse cytoplasm

Fibroblasts may differentiate to adipose cells or

chondrocytes

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wound healing

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Myofibroblast

:

are

modified fibroblasts

They

have bundle of

actin

similar

to smooth muscle cells

Abundant

in wound

healing ( wound contraction)

Activated

Fibrocyte

= fibroblast

wound healing

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Macrophage

Origin

: bone marrow

monocyte

( in blood) Macrophage in C.T.

Irregular membrane surface; nucleus may be oval and is eccentric

Size: 10-30 micro

Phagocytosis

of cell debris and micro organisms

Presenting antigens to lymphocytes

RBC turnover in spleen

Secretion of

cytokins

, enzyme

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The

mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS)

(also called

Reticuloendothelial

System or Macrophage System)

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is a part of the immune system

consists of the

phagocytic

cells

located in reticular connective tissueSlide16

A

ntigen-presenting

cell

(

APC) or accessory cell

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These cells process antigens and present them to T-cells.Slide17

Epithelioid

cells or multinuclear giant cells

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In chronic inflammation

is a mass formed by the union of several distinct cells (usually macrophages), often forming a

granuloma

.

It can arise in response to an infection

Granulomas

form when the immune system attempts to wall off substances it perceives as foreign but is unable to eliminate.Slide18

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Mast cell

Cytoplasm full of granules containing heparin, histamine, proteases,

chemotactic

factors,

chondroitin

sulphate

Size: 10-13 micro

Centeric

nucleus

Originate from bone marrow stem cell

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- Immediate hypersensitivity reaction

- Slow reaction

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'Eosinophil

Chemotactic

Factor

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a peptide

that

is

chemotactic

for

eosinophilic leukocytes and is released from disrupted mast cellsSlide22

Anaphylaxis

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Plasma cell

Common in intestinal lamina

propria

and glands secreting

immunoglubulins

such as

lacrimal

glands, salivary glands, and mammary gland

Oval cell with basophilic cytoplasm, clock face nucleus

Differentiate from B - lymphocytes

Life span 10-20 days

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Adipocyte

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Others

Neutrophils

Eosinophils

Basophils

Lymphocytes - small, heterochromatic nucleus

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Slide28

Fibers

Collagen fibers

Elastic fibers

Reticular fibers

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Collagen fibers

Staining (

Eosin - pink; Mallory’s - blue; Masson’s – green)

Physical feature

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Chemical components

prolin

lysin

Hdroxy

prolin

Hydroxy

lysin

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Biosynthesis

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Disorders

:

Osteogenesis

imperfecta

(gene or amino acid)

Progressive systemic Sclerosis (

fibrose

-

keloid

)

Vitamin C is a co-factor for

prolin

hydroxylase

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Reticular Fibers (Collagen type III)

Staining (

Argylophilic

- PAS)

Physical feature

Formative cell

Disorders (

ehlers-Danlos

IV)

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Ground substance

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is the background material within which all other connective tissue elements are embedded.

 consist of a complex of

glycosaminoglycans

(

GAGs

),

proteoglycans

, and

glycoproteinsSlide38

Classification

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CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER

loose irregular connective tissue

dense irregular connective tissueSlide39

CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER

loose irregular connective tissue

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includes

areolar

tissue, reticular tissue, and adipose tissue

is the most common type of connective tissue in vertebrates

It holds organs in place and attaches epithelial tissue to other underlying tissues.

It also surrounds the blood vessels and nerves.

fibroblasts are widely dispersed in this tissueSlide40

Areolar tissue

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is a common type of loose connective tissue (and the most widely distributed type of connective tissue in vertebrates

Many adjacent epithelial tissues (which are

avascular

) get their nutrients from the interstitial fluid of

areolar

tissue; the lamina

propria

is

areolar

in many body locations.

Its fibers run in random directions and are mostly

collagenous

, but elastic and reticular fibers are also present. Slide41

Function

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hold organs in place and attaches epithelial tissue to other underlying tissues

It also serves as a reservoir of water and salts for surrounding tissues.

Almost all cells obtain their nutrients from and release their wastes into

areolar

connective tissue.Slide42

Location

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is found beneath the dermis layer and is also underneath the epithelial tissue

It is also a component of the lamina

propria

of the digestive and respiratory tracts,

the

stroma

of glands

the hypodermis of the skin

It is also found in the mesentery which is surrounding the intestineSlide43

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Dense connective tissue

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is enriched in collagen fibers with little ground substance

If the closely packed bundles of fibers are located in one direction, it is called

regular (

tendons)

if oriented in multiple directions, it is referred to as

irregular

(dermis)Slide48

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Scars

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are areas of fibrous tissue (fibrosis) that replace normal skin after injury.

A scar results from the biological process of wound repair in the skin and other tissues of the body. Slide51

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Scar tissue is composed of the same protein (collagen) as the tissue that it replaces, but the fiber composition of the protein is different

This collagen scar tissue alignment is usually of inferior functional quality to the normal collagen

randomised

alignment.

For example, scars in the skin are less resistant to ultraviolet radiation, and sweat glands and hair follicles do not grow back within scar tissues.Slide52

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A myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, causes scar formation in the heart muscle, which leads to loss of muscular power and possibly heart failure.

However, there are some tissues (e.g. bone) that can heal without any structural or functional deterioration.Slide53

Types

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Hypertrophic

Keloid

Atrophic

Stretch marksSlide54

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