CELL BIOLOGY (C)- 2015 PowerPoint Presentation

CELL BIOLOGY (C)- 2015 PowerPoint Presentation

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. KAREN LANCOUR. . National Bio Rules . Committee Chairman . karenlancour@charter.net. Event Rules – 2015 . . DISCLAIMER. . This presentation was prepared using draft rules.  There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules. ID: 692156

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Presentations text content in CELL BIOLOGY (C)- 2015

Slide1

CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015

KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman karenlancour@charter.net

Slide2

Event Rules – 2015

DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared using draft rules.  There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules.  The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules.

Slide3

Event Rules – 2015

BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2015 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL

Slide4

TRAINING MATERIALS

Training Power Point – content overviewTraining Handout - content informationPractice Activities - sample stations with keySample Tournament – sample problems with key

Event Supervisor Guide

– prep tips, event needs, and scoring tips

Internet Resource & Training CD’s

– on the Science Olympiad website at

www.soinc.org

under Event Information

Biology-Earth Science CD

,

Cell Biology CD (updated 2015)

in Science Olympiad Store at

www.soinc.org

Slide5

GAME PLAN

POWERPOINT FOR OVERVIEWHANDOUT FOR DETAIL OF INFORMATION NEEDEDINTERNET RESOURCES AND CD FOR MORE HELP PRACTICE ACTIVITIES TO MASTER SKILLSSAMPLE COMPETITION UNDER TIMED CONDITIONS

TO EXPERIENCE COMPETITION SITUATION

Slide6

Student Preparation Team work skills

Time limitsAnswering questionsMeasurement and CalculationsReference materialsReview basic principles of cell biologyConstruct sample stations

Slide7

Cell Biology (C)Competition –

topics chart Process Skills - observations, inferences, predictions, data analysis, and calculations Event Parameters – be sure to check the rules for resources allowed and safety goggles required.

Slide8

Topics - Regional and State

Biological monomers and polymers also HDL & LDL Cellular Homeostasis (pH, molarity, etc.)EnzymesCell organelles/structures and their functionsDifferences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cellsQUALITATIVE aspects of photosynthesis and respiration

Membrane structure and function

Movement across membranes

Importance of ATP

Structure of viruses

Cell cycle and mitosis

Chromosome Structure

Fermentation Products and their uses

Slide9

Topics – Nationals

All of topics from state and regional plus:Cell communication and membrane receptorsApoptosisEnzyme inhibitionStem cell concepts and usesViral replicationC3 vs. C4 vs. CAM plantsConsequences of changes in protein shape

Cancerous vs normal cells

Genomics

Bioethics relating to above topics

Slide10

Characteristics of a Cell

Contain highly organized molecular and biochemical systems and are used to store informationUse energyCapable of movementSense environmental changesCan duplicate (transfer genetic information to offspring)Capable of self-regulation

Slide11

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic – single cell with nuclear material but no nuclear membrane or membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic – most cells – with organized nucleus and membrane bound organelles

Slide12

Animal Cell – “ Compare to a factory”

Know the function of cell organelles

Slide13

Organelles – “factory components with function”

Support - Cell wall , cell membrane cytoskeleton, microtubles

Controls material entering and leaving

-

Cell membrane, pores

Internal transport

system –

Endoplasmic reticulum

Powerhouse

-

mitochondria

Control center

nucleus, organelle DNA for mitochondria

and chloroplast

Production of key

products –

ribosomes

,

endoplastic

reticulum, chloroplasts

Packaging center for shipment of products

Golgi Apparatus, ER

Shipment of materials out of cell

-

Golgi Apparatus, vesicles

Storage of liquids and

solids –

Vacuole,

vesicles, plastids,

Recycling

center –

Lysosomes

and

perixosomes

Convert light energy to chemical energy

-

chloroplasts

Allows new cell factories to be

produced –

nuclear

DNA,

centrioles

, cell wall

Slide14

Nucleus

Nuclear envelope – double membrane chromatin – DNARNA nucleolus – Ribosome sub-units

Slide15

Chromosome Structure

Nuclesosomes – Core of DNA wrapped around 8 histone proteins plus linkerDNA Solenoid – coiling of nucleosomes like phone cord

c. Chromatin

fiber

– series of

nucleosomes

d. Metaphase chromosomes

Slide16

Cytoskeleton Intermediate filaments

are more permanent than microtubules and microfilaments- they provide tensile strength for the cell Microtubules-composed of tubulin - act as a scaffold to determine cell shape, and provide a set of "tracks" for cell organelles and vesicles to move on. Microtubules also form the spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis. When arranged in geometric patterns inside flagella and cilia, they are used for locomotion. Microfilaments-composed of actin - Microfilaments' association with the protein myosin is responsible for muscle contraction. Microfilaments can also carry out cellular movements including gliding, contraction, and cytokinesis.

Slide17

Plant Cell – Special Features Cell wall – protection and support

Chloroplast - for photosynthesisLarge central vacuole- for storage and increase surface area

Slide18

Cell MembraneComposition

: mainly protein and phospholipid; some proteins extend thru membraneProtein function: receptors, transport in and out of cells, structureLipids in membrane can move laterally at about 2um/secSaturated fatty acids in P-lipids make membrane more rigid; unsaturated fatty acids will increase the fluidity of membrane. Note: As temp drops, organisms put more unsaturated fatty acids in membrane

Slide19

Movement Across Membranes

Diffusion: molecules moving from high to low concentration; concentration = #molecules/volumeOsmosis

:

diffusion of water across a selective membrane; amount of water is opposite of number molecules-if water is

high, solute (molecules) is low.

Facilitative diffusion

:

just like diffusion (high to low) but a protein carrier is involved Note: diffusion will continue but rate of transport with carrier will level off because carrier becomes saturated

Slide20

Osmosis

Hypertonic - high solute concentration relative to another solution

Hypotonic

-

low solute concentration relative to another solution

Isotonic

-

solute concentration is the same as that of another solution

Slide21

Plant Cells – Turgor Pressureand Plasmolysis

Slide22

Animal Cells – in different solutions

Slide23

Passive Transport – no energy used

Slide24

Active Transport – uses energy

Slide25

Endocytosis and Exocytosis

Slide26

Slide27

Monomers and Polymers

monomerpolymer

example

Reagents

simple sugar

(monosaccharide)

polysaccharide

starch, cellulose,

glycogen (animal)

Benedicts-glucose

Iodine-starch

amino acid

protein, polypeptide

hair, enzyme,

hemoglobin, insulin

Ninhydrin,

Biuret

nucleotide

nucleic acid

DNA, RNA

methyl green

fatty acid/glycerol

fat or tri glyceride

cooking oil, butter

grease test with

brown paper

Slide28

Chemical Interactions

Slide29

pH Hydrogen ion concentration

Liquid may be acid, base or neutral7 is neutralBelow 7 is acidicAbove 7 is basicLogarithmic Buffers in cells

Slide30

Acids and Bases

Acid-a substance that can take up an electron pair to form a covalent bondBase-a substance that can donate an electron pair to form a covalent bondCondensation reaction-when two molecules are combined into one molecule with the release of one water molecule A + B == C + H2O Ex: 2 amino acids are joined together to form a dipeptide moleculeHydrolysis reaction-when one molecule is broken into two molecules with the addition of water molecule C + H2O == A + B Ex: disaccharide maltose + water == 2 glucose molecules

Slide31

Enzymes

CatalystsMade of Protein May have non-protein partsLower Activation EnergyNot changed during reactionEnzyme-substrate complexInhibition Competitive -

binding

at active site

Noncompetitive-

binding

at a site other than the active

site

Slide32

Enzymatic Mechanisms

Enzyme brings reacting molecules into close proximityEnzyme orients reactants into positions to induce favorable interactionsEnzymes alter the chemical environment of the reactants to promote interaction

Slide33

Importance of ATP

Energy storage chemical for cell processesMost of ATP is produced via electron transport chain Main reason that cells need oxygen: to allow them to make lots of ATPInvolved in both photosynthesis and respiration

Slide34

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis – Trapping of sunlight energy followed by its conversion to chemical energy (ATP, NADPH, or both) and then synthesis into sugar phosphates which convert into sucrose, cellulose, starch, and other end products. It is the main pathway by which energy and carbon enter the food webs.

Slide35

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Two major parts of photosynthesisLight reactions: (Photolysis) conversion of light energy into ATP and NADPHDark reactions: Calvin Cycle (the thermochemical stage) use of energy (ATP & NADPH) to form carbohydratesPurpose of photosynthesisMain biosynthetic pathway by which carbon and energy enter the web of lifeWhere it occurs – in the ChloroplastLight reactions -

granum

(several

thylakoids

) and

thylakoid

membranes

Dark reactions

-

stroma

Slide36

Light-Dependent Reactions

Non-cyclic photophosphorylation (Photosystem II-P680 and then Photosystem I – P680) - long pathway - Occurs in eukaryotic plants – algae, mosses, ferns, conifers, & flowering plantsOxygen and NADP are generated

Cyclic

photophosphorylation

– (

Photosystem

I –P700) – short pathway

Occurs in prokaryotes (

Cyanobacteria

) with electrons being used over and over again

No oxygen or NADP are generated

Slide37

Electron Transport Chain

Slide38

Dark Reactions

(light-independent reactions)

C3 cycle

-

Calvin cycle (Calvin-Benson cycle)

Major metabolic pathway by which CO2 is fixed during photosynthesis – about 95% of plants on earth are C3 plants

Also known as the

carbon fixation stage

,

this part of the photosynthetic process occurs in the 

stroma

 of chloroplasts.

Major purpose - use energy from light reactions to fix CO

2

into organic molecules

Slide39

Cell Respiration

Cellular Respiration - Organic substances are broken down to simpler products with the release of energy which is incorporated into special energy-carrying molecules (ATP) and is eventually used for metabolic processes. All cells carry on some form of cellular respiration. Most plants and animals require oxygen. NOTE: The amount of NET ATP production varies from cell to cell.

Slide40

Glycolysis

Slide41

Fermentations

Alcholic Fermentation - Certain types of bacteria and yeast - Ethanol - 2 ATP (no NADH)

Lactic

Acid

Fermentation

-

certain

types of bacteria and overworked muscles

Lactic acid is found in yogurt, sauerkraut, and overworked muscles

2 ATP (no NADH) ... intense muscle activity (little O

2

available

)

Slide42

Fermentation Products and their Uses Carbon dioxide – bread making

Alcohol – wine making and brewing Lactic Acid – lactic acid bacteria ferment milk into products as yogurt

Slide43

Kreb Cycle – Citric Acid Cycle

Slide44

Electron Transport Oxidative Phosphorylation

Slide45

Cell Cycle

G1 Phase – high rate of biosynthesis and growth S Phase – DNA content doubles and chromosomes replicate G2 Phase - final preparations for Mitosis

M

Phase

– Mitosis and

Cytokinesis

Slide46

Mitosis

Prophase – chromatid pairs coil up, spindle forms, nuclear membrane dissolves, chromatid pairs attach to spindle fibers (microtubules)Metaphase – chromatid pairs move to the equator, chromatid pairs align at the equator

Anaphase –

chromatids separate into individual chromosomes, chromosomes are pulled apart toward the equator by the spindle fibers (microtubules)

Telophase

-

chromosomes uncoil, spindle dissolves, nuclear membrane reforms

Cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm to make two new cells

Slide47

Control of Cell Cycle

Slide48

Cancer & Stem Cells Cancer is a disorder in which some of the body’s cells lose the ability to control growth

Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that control the growth of most cellsCancer cells divide uncontrollablyThey form masses of cells called tumors, which can damage surrounding tissuesCancer cells do not stop growing when they touch other cellsThey continue to grow and divide until their supply of nutrients is used upThese cells may break loose from tumors and spread throughout the bodyStem Cells are unspecialized that have the potential to differentiate into any type of cellThey are found in human embryos, umbilical cord blood and some adult cellsThey are used to repair injuries as brain and spinal cord, cure some diseases as diabetes,and replace organs as liver tissue and heart valves

Slide49

Apoptosis - A form of cell death in which a programmed sequence of events leads to the elimination of cells without releasing harmful substances into the surrounding area

Necrosis - The uncontrolled cell death that occurs as a response to lethal injury leading to a severe physical damage in the cell as well as the tissue containing it

Death

of Cells

by injurious agents or by being induced to commit suicide

Slide50

Structure of Viruses

Non-cellular infectious agentComposed of DNA or RNA and a protein coatReplicates only after its genetic material enters a host cellSubverts the host’s metabolic machinery

Slide51

Viral Reproduction


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