Discovering the process of translation with triangulation m

Discovering the process of translation with triangulation m Discovering the process of translation with triangulation m - Start

2016-10-13 77K 77 0 0

Description

Dr Binghan . ZHENG. Lecturer in Chinese & Translation Studies. School of Modern Languages & Cultures. Durham University. A discussion based on English-Chinese Translation. Doing research . multilingually. ID: 474960 Download Presentation

Embed code:
Download Presentation

Discovering the process of translation with triangulation m




Download Presentation - The PPT/PDF document "Discovering the process of translation w..." is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.



Presentations text content in Discovering the process of translation with triangulation m

Slide1

Discovering the process of translation with triangulation model

Dr Binghan ZHENGLecturer in Chinese & Translation StudiesSchool of Modern Languages & CulturesDurham University

A discussion based on English-Chinese Translation

Doing research

multilingually

:

An exploratory seminar

School of Education, Durham University

7th – 8th July, 2010

Slide2

Outline

Introduction & backgroundPrevious research & findingsMethodology & research designAnalysis & discussionLimitations & future research Appendix

2

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research

multilingually

_Durham_2010

Slide3

1. Introduction and background

Concept of ‘translation problems’ which manifests itself empirically has hardly been paid any attention by translation theorists. The reason for this may be the fact that translation theory has had a strong theoretical, speculative, and thus non-empirical orientation.(Lörscher 1991:92)Since the1980s, with the emergence and development of a process-oriented approach into TS, the concept of ‘translation problems’ and ‘translation strategies’ has gained crucial importance.

3

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

The studies on “translation problems”(TPs)

Slide4

1. Introduction and background

Krings (1986a:112-171) distinguishes between three types of problems occurring in translating:Translation problemsL2-competence problemsTranslation-competence problemsLörscher (1991:94) defines TPs as all those (linguistic) problems which a subject is faced with when producing a translation.

4

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide5

1. Introduction and background

How to identifying problems ?(Mondahl & Jensen 1996:102)Primary indicator: A translator’s identification of the problem, i.e. points out the problem directly/indirectly & verbalizes about it. Secondary indicators: The translator senses that something is problematic, e.g. competes suggestions for translation of same ST element, underlines elements of ST, dissatisfies with the translation chosen, makes corrections, or pauses.

5

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide6

1. Introduction and background

Identifying TPs from TAPs in present research: 1) the translator points out the problem directly/indirectly & verbalizes about it;2) the translator makes competing suggestions for the translation of the same ST element; 3) the translator indicates his/her pondering on some problem followed by long time pause.

6

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide7

2. Previous research and findings

2.1 The number of TPsAccording to Ericsson & Simon (1984:90), with increasing experience of a task, a cognitively controlled process may change into an automatic process, so that what is available for verbalization to the novice may be unavailable to the expert.Krings (1986) compared the TAPs of 1 professional translator and 8 English students and found out that the professional reported more TPs.

7

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide8

2. Previous research and findings

2.1 The number of TPsJääskeläinen & Tirkkonen-Condit (1991) further divided translation into routine & non-routine tasks. “in non-routine tasks the total amount of verbalizations produced may not necessarily be considerably smaller, because while some processes become automated, other processes are evoked into consciousness, i.e., the translator becomes sensitized to new kinds of potential problems”.

8

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide9

2. Previous research and findings

2.2 The Hierarchy of TPsThe hierarchy of translation problem ↔ The hierarchy of translation strategy“a translation strategy is a potentially conscious procedure for the solution of a problem which an individual is faced with when translating a text segment from one language into another” (Lörscher 1991a:76)Jääskeläinen (1993):

9

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide10

2. Previous research and findings

2.2 The Hierarchy of TPsSéguinot (1991): text level problems ↔ lexical level problems Other arguments: non-professionals pay more attention to micro level translation problems (lexical choice, grammar reconstruction, etc.), professionals work more on macro level translation problems (style & function, cultural references, etc.) (Gerloff 1988; Fraser 1993)

10

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide11

2. Previous research and findings

2.2 The Hierarchy of TPsDeficiencies in previous research:1. Short of precise and systematic classification of hierarchy of TPs2. Insufficient in comparative studies on hierarchy of TPs 3. Small sample size and number of subjects

11

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide12

2. Previous research and findings

2.2 The Hierarchy of TPsHierarchy of TPs in present study: based on A Glossary of English Grammar (Leech 2006) and Problems in Analyzing Chinese Grammar (Lü Shuxiang 1979:28)

12

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide13

3. Methodology and research design

The Triangulation Model(cf. Alves 2003) : Several data collection methods for cross-examination of the resultsUp-to-date ideal research model in process-oriented TSThe Triangulation Model in present study:

13

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide14

3. Methodology and research design

The subjects:20 volunteer subjectsChinese L1, English L2Three categories: professional, semi-professional, novice36 samples collected from 18 subjects after screening

14

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide15

Basic information on subjects (S1-S18)

TypeSubjectAge RangeTranslation ExperienceNoviceS1-S620-24Less than 2 years part-time translation experience; less than 30,000 Chinese words in E–C translation; have never published translation work.Semi-professionalS7-S1225-29More than 3 years part-time translation experience; have never had full-time professional translation experience; 100,000-300,000 Chinese words in E–C translation; have never published translation work.ProfessionalS13-S1825-44More than 3 years full-time professional translation experience; more than 500,000 Chinese words in E–C translation; have had some translation works published.

3. Methodology and research design

15

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide16

The source textsText Ⅰ:a popular science essay. Text Ⅱ:a political speech text.Concerns:   To include different writing styles  To balance the difficulties for translation

3. Methodology and research design

16

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide17

Experiment procedurea. TA training 3 GRE logic questions, verbalizing anything that went through minds.Introspective remarks or explanations to be strictly avoided. Feedback given with suggestions for improvement. Help for familiarization with the experimental environment in a usability lab.

3. Methodology and research design

17

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide18

Experiment procedureb. Data collection

3. Methodology and research design

18

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide19

Experiment procedurec. Transcription and evaluationTranscription conventions were based on Englund Dimotrova (2005) with some additional unique symbols.Two professors who are experienced in marking E-C translation tests to assess the target texts (TTs) produced by all subjects.

3. Methodology and research design

19

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide20

4.1. The number of TPsA. Data analysis:In general, the number of TPs decreases with the improvement in translation proficiency.

4. Analysis and discussion

20

TypeNumber & percentage (total)Number & percentage (routine)Number & percentage (non-routine)Novices208; 38.45%109; 43.78%99; 33.90%Semi-professionals175; 32.35%76; 30.52%99; 33.90%Professionals158; 29.20%64; 25.70%94; 32.20%

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide21

4.1. The number of TPsA. Data analysis:In line with the automaticity hypothesis: cognitive processes tend to become more automatic through repeated practice, hence professionals, with more practice and experience in translation, tend to have fewer translation problems.

4. Analysis and discussion

21

TypeNumber & percentage (total)Number & percentage (routine)Number & percentage (non-routine)Novices208; 38.45%109; 43.78%99; 33.90%Semi-professionals175; 32.35%76; 30.52%99; 33.90%Professionals158; 29.20%64; 25.70%94; 32.20%

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide22

4.1. The number of TPsA. Data analysis:Compare: A. Professional translator in Seguinot (1989) verbalised little and in general worked quickly and efficiently. --Carried out routine tasksB. Krings (1988a), Gerloff (1988), and Jääskeläinen (1990b) reported the exact opposite happening: professional translators spent more time and more effort on the task than non-professionals. --Carried out non-routine tasks

4. Analysis and discussion

22

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide23

4.1. The number of TPsB. Further study on routine and non-routine tasks:

4. Analysis and discussion

23

TypeNumber & percentage (total)Number & percentage (routine)Number & percentage (non-routine)Novices208; 38.45%109; 43.78%99; 33.90%Semi-professionals175; 32.35%76; 30.52%99; 33.90%Professionals158; 29.20%64; 25.70%94; 32.20%

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

a) In routine tasks, the number decreases significantly at the higher levels of translation proficiency; while in non-routine tasks, there are almost no differences between three types of subjects in number of TPs.

Slide24

4.1. The number of TPsB. Further study on routine and non-routine tasks:

4. Analysis and discussion

24

TypeNumber & percentage (total)Number & percentage (routine)Number & percentage (non-routine)Novices208; 38.45%109; 43.78%99; 33.90%Semi-professionals175; 32.35%76; 30.52%99; 33.90%Professionals158; 29.20%64; 25.70%94; 32.20%

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

b) Novices have minimum difference between routine and non-routine tasks in number of TPs (109

vs

99), while professionals have maximum difference (64

vs

94).

Slide25

4.1. The number of TPsB. Further study on routine and non-routine tasks:

4. Analysis and discussion

25

TypeNumber & percentage (total)Number & percentage (routine)Number & percentage (non-routine)Novices208; 38.45%109; 43.78%99; 33.90%Semi-professionals175; 32.35%76; 30.52%99; 33.90%Professionals158; 29.20%64; 25.70%94; 32.20%

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

c) 14 out of 18 subjects (77.8%) have fewer TPs in carrying out routine tasks, which means routine tasks are performed quickly and effortlessly with fewer TPs to be solved; however, this rule does not apply to novices as only 50% of them have fewer TPs in doing routine tasks.

Slide26

4.1. The number of TPsC. Conclusion: The number of TPs can by no means serve as an indicator for translation proficiency in a general way. It reduces with increased automaticity in translating, but increases with growing awareness of potential problems. This is the same for translators in non-routine situations. The number of TPs can to some extent serve as an indicator for translation proficiency in translating routine tasks.

4. Analysis and discussion

26

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide27

4.2. The hierarchy of TPsA. General distribution of TPs in different hierarchies

4. Analysis and discussion

27

TypeWord level Phrase levelClause levelSentence and above levelNovices47.6833.9112.106.31Semi-professionals28.7645.5617.678.02Professionals26.2431.5128.6213.62Average percentage34.2336.9919.479.32

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Static Unit(word, phrase level) accounts for 71.22%; Dynamic Unit(clause, sentence and above sentence level) accounts for 28.79%.

Slide28

4.2. The hierarchy of TPsA. General distribution of TPs in different hierarchies

4. Analysis and discussion

28

TypeWord level Phrase levelClause levelSentence and above levelNovices47.6833.9112.106.31Semi-professionals28.7645.5617.678.02Professionals26.2431.5128.6213.62Average percentage34.2336.9919.479.32

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Compare:

Krings

(1987:169) argued that 90% of TPs are at word level, which is much higher percentage than that in our statistic result.

Slide29

4.2. The hierarchy of TPsA. General distribution of TPs in different hierarchies Justifications: Krings’ subjects are 8 English MA students, classified as non-professionals in our research, have comparatively higher percentages in lower level TPs. Krings’ translation tasks--English-German translations (between family languages) The present tasks--English-Chinese translations (between distant languages). Due to larger difference in syntax structures & cultural factors, E-C translation is comparatively more complicated, produces more macro TPs to be considered.

4. Analysis and discussion

29

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide30

4.2. The hierarchy of TPsA. General distribution of TPs in different hierarchies Features in Chinese language: parataxis, covert cohesion, preponderance of verbs, (verb) serialization, etc.Features in English language: hypotaxis, overt cohesion, preponderance of nouns, subordination, etc.E-C translating, to faithfully render English into expressive and idiomatic Chinese expressions, avoiding Europeanized translation, a translator has to deal with many translation problems at clause, sentence and above sentence level.

4. Analysis and discussion

30

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide31

4.2. The hierarchy of TPsB. Comparative study of TPs among different translators:Percentages in hierarchy of Static Unit: Professionals<Semi-professionals<NovicesPercentages in hierarchy of Dynamic Unit: Novices<Semi-professionals<Professionals

4. Analysis and discussion

31

TypeWord level Phrase levelClause levelSentence & above levelNovices47.6833.9112.106.31Semi-professionals28.7645.5617.678.02Professionals26.2431.5128.6213.62Average percentage34.2336.9919.479.32

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide32

4.2. The hierarchy of TPsB. Comparative study of TPs among different translators:In line with Jääskeläinen(1993) & Lörscher(1993):with improvement in translation proficiency, a translator tends to have more macro level TPs.

4. Analysis and discussion

32

TypeWord level Phrase levelClause levelSentence & above levelNovices47.6833.9112.106.31Semi-professionals28.7645.5617.678.02Professionals26.2431.5128.6213.62Average percentage34.2336.9919.479.32

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide33

4.2. The hierarchy of TPsB. Comparative study of TPs between different translators:Justifications:a) More potential micro level problems (lexical choice, collocation, idiom equivalence) can be solved within automatic translation processes.b) Translators become more sensitive to macro level problems, more flexible in sentence transference and consider more translation problems inherent in language structures. In E-C translation, dividing English long sentences into Chinese short sentence expressions, changing English passive voice into Chinese active voice, are all favored strategies leading to better translation.

4. Analysis and discussion

33

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide34

4.2. The hierarchy of TPsB. Comparative study of TPs between different translators:Justifications:c) Different modes of translation process:Professionals: ‘top-down’ approachFocus: A global view and overall understanding of the text Novices: ‘bottom-up’ approachFocus: The expression of separate words or phrases

4. Analysis and discussion

34

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide35

Limitations: Experimental techniques & corpus scale Future research:Chinese into English translation Triangulation model consisting of TAPs, Translog or Camtasia, post-experiment interviews and so on.

5. Limitations and future research

35

BINGHAN ZHENG(DR)

Doing research multilingually_Durham_2010

Slide36

CPExplanationsTAPs examplesCMThe participant is facing an unfamiliar word or phrase and consulting it with translation instruments.(S2/novice/V1)(TAPs):◇(symphony)〖金山词霸〗查一下什么意思, s-y-m-p-h-o-n-y交响乐,交响曲,交响乐,symphony,◆/symphony…交响曲吧。(English for TAPs):◇(symphony)〖Kingsoft Powerword〗Check the meaning, s-y-m-p-h-o-n-y Jiaoxiangyue, Jiaoxiangqu, Jiaoxiangyue,symphony,◆/symphony…ok, use jiaoxiangqu.VMThe participant is not sure about the meaning of a word or phrase and verifying it with translation instruments.(S7/semi-professional/V2)(TAPs):terror就把它翻译成恐怖势力吧?查一下。〖金山词霸〗◇t-e-r-r-o-r[14s]◆嗯,△我们共同反对恐怖行~/恐怖行动▲/(English for TAPs):terror, how about Kongbu Shili?Have a check.〖Kingsoft Powerword〗◇t-e-r-r-o-r[14s]◆eh, △Women Gongtong Fandui Kongbu Xing~/Kongbu Xingdong▲/

Explanations and examples on consulting purposes (CP)

6. Appendix

examples of TAPs transcription and protocol presenting

Slide37

CP

E

xplanations

TAPs

examples

OE

The participant acknowledges the general meaning of a word or phrase and search for its extra optimized expressions to fit for the particular context.

S14/professional/V1

TAPs

):

judgment

翻译成评判?/论断?/嗯-先查一下词典看一下

judgment

还有没有别的翻译

?

〖金山词霸〗

judgment

judgment……

——

意见,看法,

那么就可以翻译成

——

/这里竟然用到

conceive↓

conceive

一般都是说一个很重要的理论,不能仅仅只说,道德(的一个看法)/道德

——

评判?判断?

......

judgment

这里只能翻译成判断喽

English for TAPs

):

judgment,

say,

Pingpan

?/Lunduan?

eh

look it

up

first

, judgment,

see if any

other

translations

Kingsoft Powerword

judgment

judgment……er——

Yijian, Kanfa

,

ok

t

hen

I can translate it as ——

Here’s

conceive”↓

.

C

onceive

generally refers to a very important

theory

.

C

annot

only say

Daode

de Yige Kanfa

Daode——Pingpan

Panduan

......

So

judgment

here can only be translated as

Panduan

.

SC

The participant acknowledges the meaning of a word or phrase and search for its proper collocation from translation instruments

S13/professional/V1

TAPs

):

brilliant

,伟大的,

brilliant

/(

brilliant

)换一个词,换一个词,因为前面已经有

伟大

杰出

了,换一个近义词,

brilliant

,查一下金山词霸/

〖金山词霸〗~

l-

i

-a-n-t

brilliant

,有才气的

……[2s]

/才气,才气形容

不能形容

理论

……[2s]

思考一个怎样的理论?/科学理论/思考一个/

brilliant

,辉煌的,壮丽的,超群的,超群的,卓越的,看(一下)卓越的或者超群的科学理论

English for TAPs

):

brilliant

Weida

de

brilliant

/(

brilliant

change a word, change a word,

‘coz

there are

Weida

and

Jiechu

already

, should use

a synonym

brilliant

have a

check in the

Powerword

Kingsoft

Powerword

〗~

l-

i

-a-n-t

brilliant

You

Caiqi

de

……[2s]

Caiqi

Caiqi

modifies a person,

not a theory……[2s]think

about a

what theory

?/

scientific theory

think

about a

brilliant

Huihuang

de

Zhuangli

de

Chaoqun

de

Chaoqun

de

Zuoyue

de

,

say,

Zuoyue

de

or

Chaoqun

de

scientific theory.

Slide38

Thank you very much!Questions & comments…

38

Contact Information:Binghan ZHENG (Dr)Lecturer in Chinese & Translation Studies School of Modern Languages & CulturesDurham UniversityEmail: Binghan.zheng@durham.ac.uk

Doing research multilingually: An exploratory seminarSchool of Education, Durham University 7th – 8th July, 2010


About DocSlides
DocSlides allows users to easily upload and share presentations, PDF documents, and images.Share your documents with the world , watch,share and upload any time you want. How can you benefit from using DocSlides? DocSlides consists documents from individuals and organizations on topics ranging from technology and business to travel, health, and education. Find and search for what interests you, and learn from people and more. You can also download DocSlides to read or reference later.