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Strategies to Support Readers ofOctavius V. Catto: Remembering a Forgotten Hero Vera Da Vinci Curriculum and Reading Specialist
WHAT DO STUDENTS NEED TO FULLY ENGAGE WITH TEXT? Be motivated by seeing connections to self, other learnings, and other texts Need to make sense of the content Build on what they already know Use tools and routines that support collaboration and communication Feel safe when asking questions and sharing responses Feel productive when interacting with difficult text content and concepts
TEACHERS CAN SUPPORT STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Front load – Provide and model activities and readings that help student develop background knowledge and motivation to successfully interact with the text Essential Questions– How can stories about other people and times speak to my life? What impact did the events and legislation of the 1800s have on the lives of African-Americans in Philadelphia? Small Group Activities comparing life during Catto’s time and the present – How did people in this time period view their lives and the world? What changed and what remained the same? How can these similarities help us understand the present?
TEACHERS CAN SUPPORT STUDENT ENGAGEMENT- CONTINUED Model activities to introduce/review key concepts and vocabulary that might be unfamiliar but are crucial to understanding the text Civil Rights – What are they – examples – violations of – actions taken – how resolved Selected vocabulary from text to review in context prior to reading selected text Provide students with items to preview and predict the text content Timeline Map Anticipation Guide Provide additional readings – fiction and non-fiction about Catto’s time and civil rights struggles then and more recently - to enhance background knowledge and enrich discussion Jigsaw reading followed by a quick write
2016 – 1,567,872 Black or African American - 44.2% Hispanic &Latino – 14.4% Irish – 13.6% Italian – 9.2% German - 8.1% Asian 7.4% Polish – 4.3% English -2.9% American Indian or Alaskan - .9% TODAY ’S PHILADELPHIA Computer – based businessesFinance Insurance CompaniesTelecommunications Insurance Companies Printing and Publishing Biomedical Educational and Health Institutions Tourism Oil Refining Manufacturing 9.22% of workers walk to workWaitstaff Janitors and cleaners Laborers and material movers Food prep Customer Service Secretaries Bookeepers and Accountants Nursing aides Stock clerks Truck drivers Sales reps Teachers Repair workers Supervisors Receptionists 220 Public Schools134,041 enrolled103 Charter Schools (included Cyber)69,505 enrolled(HS Diploma held by 82% Philadelphians. College Degrees held by 25.4%) POPULATION ETHNIC & ANCESTRY GROUPS INDUSTRIES JOBS PUBLIC EDUCATION
1850 - 121,376 1860 – 565,529 (20,630 African-Americans) Huge population growth due to bringing together city and county districts Most workers walked to work Greater proportion of black women than white worked for wages than as unpaid housewives Tailors – weavers – spinners – cotton twisters Coopers – cabinet makers – joiners – chair makers Boot and shoemakers – tanners Draymen – carmen- wheelwrights – blacksmiths StonemasonsInn keepers – grocers – brewersPublishers - teachersINDUSTRIES Textiles and ClothingMetal ProductionPrinting and PublishingLeather Production First public schools white only and segregated by sex 1818-First 8 public schools opened 1822 – First primary school for African Americans1827- PA Society for Promotion of Public Schools founded by Roberts Vaux1828- Lombard Street Grammar School for African American students opens1838 – 17.000 students enrolled in public schools1854 – PA legalized separation of races if 20 or more African American students could be educated together 1867 – 2/3 of Philadelphians aged 6-12 attended school Germans Irish English African-Americans (3.7%) Welsh French Chinese 1850’S PHILADELPHIA POPULATION JOBS PUBLIC EDUCATION ETHNIC & ANCESTRY GROUPS
How has the location of “the heart of black Philadelphia” changed in present time?
What are the political advantages and disadvantages of having a large population of the same race or ethnicity in the same voting district?
What do these statistics tell you about economic opportunities for free blacks before the Civil War?
Timeline of Events Around the Lifetime of Octavius Catto (1839 – 1871) 1837 Institute for Colored Youth founded 1839 Octavius born to William T. Catto and Sarah Isabella Cain in Charleston, South Carolina 1841 Supreme Court of the U.S. states that in the case of the slave ship Amistad the Africans who wrested control of ship had been bound into slavery illegally 1842Lombard Street Riot began when angry mob of whites attacked parade celebrating Jamaican Emancipation Day. African Americans were beaten and their homes looted. The rioting lasted for 3 days. A local church and abolition meeting place were destroyed by fire.1845New York Herald first newspaper to mention the game of baseball Alexander Cartwright and New York Knickerbockers baseball team systemizes the "rules of baseball" for first time, including nine men per side.Irish potato famine began with widespread failures of the potato crop1847 The American Medical Association founded in Philadelphia1848Catto and his family move to Philadelphia which only offered segregated public schools. He enrolls in Vaux Primary School and then attends the Lombard Street Grammar School. Gold discovered in California by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in town of Colona The Declaration of Sentiments calling for equal rights for women and men signed by 100 men and women in Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Seneca Falls, New York at 1st Women's Rights Convention led by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton1850Fugitive Slave Law limiting legal rights of escaped slaves passed Debate on future of slavery in the territories escalates when Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Congress 1852Uncle Tom's Cabin published helping to inspire the anti-slavery movement in the 1850's1854Catto enrolls in the Institute for Colored Youth (ICY) which offered classical subjects including Latin, Greek, geometry and trigonometry The Republican Party is founded by anti-slavery expansion activists1857United States Supreme Court rules in Dred Scott decision, 6-3, that a slave did not become free when transported into a free state, that slavery could not be banned by the U.S. Congress in a territory, and blacks were not eligible to be awarded citizenship 1859After successfully graduating from ICY which was renamed for Benjamin Banneker, Catto hired as a teacher of English and mathematics and elected secretary of the Banneker Institute1860 Abraham Lincoln elected president1861Civil War between the Confederate and the Union states begins1862President Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation which frees nearly 4 million slaves1863The United States War Department issued General Order Number 143 on May 22, 1863, establishing a "Bureau of Colored Troops" to facilitate the recruitment of African-American soldiers to fight for the Union ArmyCatto helps raise a company of black soldiers to defend Pennsylvania against Confederate invaders 1864Catto elected Corresponding Secretary of the Pennsylvania Equal Rights League. 1865Catto helps desegregate Philadelphia’s trolley car system resulting in a law to end segregated trolleys in Philadelphia
Excerpts from Newspaper Accounts of The California House Riot – 1849“Dreadful Riot at Philadelphia: Houses Burned, and Several Persons Killed and Wounded” ( Baltimore Sun , October 11, 1849) Extracted from the Inquirer: It is with sincere regret that we record the occurrence of one of the most dreadful and sanguinary riots that has taken place for many years in our city. So far as we have been able to collect the particulars, it appears that a gang of men and boys, amounting it is said to several hundreds, and mostly armed with guns, pistols or knives, hovered about St. Mary’s street, which is chiefly inhabited by colored people, and those not of a decent and orderly class, generally speaking. At the same time, there were several knots or crowds of colored men hanging about, and two or three collisions occurred. This was the state if things shortly after nine o’clock. Before ten, an attack was made upon a tavern at the corner of Sixth and St. Mary’s streets, called the California House. This place was kept by a colored man, who was reported to be married, or at any rate, living with a white woman. Whether such were really the case, or merely a rumor, circulated to excite popular indignation, it is not in our power to state. At any rate, the house was soon in flames, the inmates driven out and fired upon, with many other colored persons – men, women and children – who were seen flying from their houses in extreme terror – chased by gangs, who pelted them with brickbats and fired after them with guns and pistols. Several were said to be wounded – and it was stated that more than one was killed. But this report we could not verify. The assailants are described as being composed of the “Killers” and other and similar associations of disturbers of the public peace. Meanwhile the fire made rapid progress – but several Engine and Hose companies were soon upon the ground. And here a truly frightful scene occurred. The firemen who went to the conflagration for the purpose of saving property, were fired upon, not in solitary cases – but actually in a running fire and by volleys of several guns and pistols at once – the rioters being out in very strong force.-They were also assailed with showers of brickbats and their hose cut in every direction. In a word, the first companies that arrived were compelled, as the only mode of avoiding wounds or death, to leave the neighborhood. Still the firing continued. It is impossible to tell the number of killed and wounded, but we saw either five or six carried to the druggists’ shops or to the Hospital, on chairs or settees. We heard that two were shot while standing on an engine and one was reported to be killed. …The whole scene was fearful and mournful – a source of real sorrow to every Philadelphian. ..Barney Himmelwright, a member of the Good Will Hose, reported to have been shot through the heart.Two other firemen dangerously wounded – one in the head and one in the side. A third wounded in leg.…It will be seen by a dispatch in another place, that the riots were resumed yesterday morning, and that the military were again called out in great force, and took possession of the ground.
F.D., “Philadelphia” (North Star, October 19, 1849 – African American newspaper from New York) The papers give an account of another ferocious mob in this mobocratic city. Its violence was directed against the colored people in the neighborhood of Sixth and St. Thomas’ street-a large number of whom are represented as having been wounded, and ten or twelve as having been killed. As usual, the excuse for this bloody outbreak is represented to be the fact that white and colored persons were living in the same families together, and associating on equal terms. One of the papers states that this is a mere pretext. But whether it be true or false it conveys an instructive lesson on the bitterness and baseness of the hatred with which colored people are regarded in Philadelphia. When, in any community, a violation of a mere custom, or disregard of a particular taste, is esteemed an available excuse for setting aside all law, and for resorting to violence and bloodshed, it shows such custom and taste to be profoundly wedded to the affections of the people… …The authority has gone from the government of Philadelphia; and the struggle will be long and fearful, before it will be regained. Since the burning of Pennsylvania Hall, Philadelphia has been from time to time, the scene of a series of most foul and cruel mobs, waged against the people of color-and it is now justly regarded as one of the most disorderly and insecure cities in the Union. No man is safe-his life-his property-and all that he holds dear, are in the hands of a mob, which may come upon him at any moment-at midnight or mid-day, and deprive him of his all… “From the Philadelphia Ledger: The Riots – Deplorable Results – The Killed and Wounded” ( North Star, October 26, 1849)The rioters ascertaining that the military forces had retired, recommenced their lawless acts, and by daylight, the disturbance was raging furiously.-Some of the rioters jumped the fence above the California House, and set fire to the frame building in the rear of the open space, between it and the dwelling above. The colored population residing in the vicinity commenced moving, when even the females were pelted with stones by the rioters while carrying articles of furniture. The flames spreading the meanwhile, bro’t firemen again to the spot. They sallied down the street, and the rioters retreating before them, the Phoenix was put in service. In a short time, however, the rioters returned, and let fly a volley of bricks, with discharges of fire arms, and the members of the Phoenix were forced to fly from their carriage. The firemen, however, were reinforced by citizens, and returning again to the fire, the Good-Will and Phoenix were put into service, and prevented the further spread of the fire, which at this time had communicated to a row of court houses, running west from Sixth street, the roofs of which were all damaged.…Several persons were wounded in the affray, of whom the following were admitted into the Hospital:James Beasley, a member of the Perseverance Hose Company, received a ball in his breast…Lawrence McShane, while looking out of the window of house in which his sister lived, was struck in the temple with a chance shot…A young medical student received a ball in his thigh while looking on the affray. The following colored men were also taken to the Hospital: R. Randall, badly hurt, shot in the back of his head; Chas Anderson, stabbed in the thigh; and George Tillotson, stabbed in the breast…
Excerpts from Shadows on Society Hill- An Addy Mystery by Evelyn Coleman Addy noticed that the closer they got to Society Hill, the cleaner everything appeared. The bricks of the houses were brighter. There was no trash on the main streets, and even the dark alleys seemed neater. The streetlights looked fancier. Signs on stores were more elaborate, and store windows held all kinds of treats. Addy couldn’t help stopping to look into one of the storefront windows. Sam called to her, “Come on, Addy, catch up now, and stay beside me.” Addy heard her brother, but she was busy admiring a beautiful blue dress with flowers on it. She was about to tear herself away and catch up with her family when she heard a gruff voice behind her shouting, “Stop here, all of you. Not another step!” Addy turned to find a policeman glaring into her face. Her heart raced. She had heard plenty of stories in the boarding house about how lots of police in Philadelphia had belonged to gangs and liked to beat up Irish and colored people. Poppa hurried to Addy, ignoring the officer’s command not to take another step. He stood between the policeman and Addy. Sam too moved closer to Addy, still carrying Esther on his arm. Momma stood beside Sam. “Sir, we are on our way to our new home,” Poppa said, extending his hand to shake.The policeman glared at Poppa’s hand as if it might be a poisonous water moccasin. “Where did you get all this stuff?” the policeman said, sounding angry.“Sir, these are our belongings. We’re only a few blocks from our new place.”Sam said, “We don’t have a wagon, so we have to walk.”The policeman pointed at Sam. “I ain’t speaking to you, boy.” Then he looked directly at Poppa. “Why are here in Society Hill, is what I’m asking.”“Sir, our home is-“The policeman held up his hand to silence Poppa. “You want me to believe you’re just strolling through Society Hill in a blizzard? Did you steal these things? What about that sled? Looks like it cost a lot of money.”…The policeman narrowed his eyes. “I’m gonna let you go for now, but I’m coming ‘round to check on you when the weather breaks. You better not be lying to me, boy,” he said.The next dayThat evening, Addy waited for Poppa to come home…He looked awfully sad.
At dinner Poppa told them what the trouble was. He had shown up for work at least twenty minutes early. When the other four men showed up, none of them even spoke to Poppa. They just went about their work as if they didn’t see him. Finally Poppa heard one of them say, “Here comes the boss.” Poppa hurried to meet Mr. Gunter. Mr. Radisson had already talked to Mr. Gunter about Poppa’s new job. Poppa said, “He took one look at me and said, ‘Sorry, but we don’t have no work for you.” “At first, I thought he just didn’t know who I was. So I introduced myself again, saying that Mr. Radisson sent me. He said, ‘Look, I ain’t had a chance to tell Radisson, but my men won’t work with you. They have threatened to quit if you work. We gotta finish this job this week. So, I’m sorry, but you can’t work.”“Then what am I supposed to do?” Poppa had asked him. “Mr. Radisson sent me here.”“I tell you what I’ll do for you. You can get us water, fetch our tools. Then you can take up your pay with Radisson.”
Excerpts from The Resurrectionist- A Mystery of Old Philadelphia by Mark Graham I was in no hurry to get back to get back to City Hall. Things were very tense at the Central Office. Fox was on the way out. Anyone could see that. Ever since the negroes got the right to vote the Democrats had the shakes. Colored men knew which side to vote for: the party of the man who freed the slaves. With their help it looked like Fox and his boys might get the boot. That meant a lot of coppers would lose their politically appointed jobs. And all the fat scale they squeezed out of grafters on their beat. I wasn’t worried, being a Republican. On the way back from court I took the old green Chestnut and Walnut Street car. The horse team waited for a long time after I got on. They’d been working hard all day like everybody else. In no time the car was packed. There was usually room for about twenty people to sit down. All those seats were taken now as we neared Fifth and Chestnut. I jostled my way to the window behind the driver, facing the back platform where the ticket taker stood. As the team started sliding the car along the rails, a gait of autumn wind knocked off my new soft hat. When I stooped for it, I caught sight of someone at the back of the car. … That was the first time I really saw her. …The car stopped and I watched new passengers packed themselves in. As we got started again I noticed three of them crowding around the colored young lady. Two wore cheap ready-made suits with vests fit to burst from their bellies. The other looked like a wiry sport with plaid trousers and a silk neck tie. They were crossmen from the look of them. That is, criminals.…All three took turns spitting long gobs in the cuspidor right by the colored girl. I averted my eyes a fourth or fifth time. Then I heard the men talking.…”Looks like we don’t have no room to sit down, Uriah.”…”Imagine. We folks gotta stand up and a n____ gets a seat. Now that don’t make no sense to me.”…”They got a nerve, that’s no joke. I think they should get their ass on the front platform when a man wants a seat.”…”You gonna move like a good little gal? Or are we gonna have to kick you out?”“Listen, you men,” said an old fellow next to me. “You know the rail company lets n___ ride inside same as everybody else. Been that way for three years.”The old fellow was correct. A battle had been fought for that right for years after the war. Before it was won, the negroes had to stand on the crowded front platform, exposed to the elements every day and night of the year, no matter what the weather. …At this point the ticket taker walked up to the men and said, “What’s this all about?”The clean-shaven fat man said, “Our pal wants the n____ seat.”The ticket taker rubbed his chin and shook his head. The he turned to the colored girl and said, “Why don’t you just stand up and stop causin’ all this trouble?”
Excerpts from Freedom’s Children – Young Civil Rights Activists Tell Their Own Stories by Ellen Levine Claudette Colvin was fifteen years old in 1955. On her own she defied the segregation laws on the Montgomery city buses when she refused to give up her seat to a white person. She was arrested, found guilty, and fined. When I grew up, the South was segregated. Very much so. Your parents had taught you that you had a place. You knew that much. In the city you had the signs. You have to stay here, you have to drink out of this fountain, you can’t eat at this counter. …It bothered me when I got old enough to understand. You could buy dry goods at the five-and-ten-cent stores…You could buy, but you couldn’t sit down and eat there. When I realized that, I was really angry. …At that time, teenagers didn’t like to ride the special school bus too much. If you had to stay after school for band practice or a rehearsal, or hang around for after-school activities, and you missed the special, you still could ride on your school pass, but on the regular bus. On the regular buses there were signs on the side saying “Colored” with an arrow this way and “White” with an arrow this way. The motorman could adjust the signs. He could direct people to sit where he wanted them to. You knew that you weren’t supposed to sit opposite a white person, or in front of a white person. The number of seats varied in different communities. Depending on whether there was a larger black population, there could be the first two or four rows reserved for white people.On March 2, 1955, I got on the bus … I went to the middle. No white people were on the bus at that time…Then the bus began to fill up. White people got on and began to stare at me. The bus motorman asked me to get up. .. A white lady was sitting across the aisle from me, and it was against the law for you to sit in the same aisle with a white person.The bus driver looked back through the rearview mirror and told me to get up. I didn’t… When I didn’t get up, he didn’t move the bus. He said before he’d drive on, I’d have to get up. People were saying, “Why don’t you get up?”… Then a girl said,”She doesn’t have to. Only one thing you have to do is stay black and die.”The white people were complaining. The driver stopped the bus and said, “This can’t go on. I’m going to call the cops.”…The traffic patrolman told the bus driver that he had no jurisdiction, and that he would have to call the regular policemen. When they got on the bus, I was speaking so fast…The busman just kept saying, “She won’t get up.” I kept saying, “He has no right…this is my constitutional right…you have no right to do this!”
The police knocked my books down. One took one wrist, the other grabbed the other, and they were pulling me of the bus, just like you see on TV now. I was really struggling. They put me in the car. Somebody must have said they didn’t have handcuffs on me and I might run away, so they put handcuffs on me. And then they took me to City Hall. …Mama knew Fred Grey, the attorney. And Mama let him and E.D. Nixon handle it. Fred Gray told me to participate in a group that was run by Rosa Parks. This was before she was arrested, before the boycott.
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Strategies to Support Readers of Octavius V Catto Remembering a Forgotten Hero Vera Da Vinci Curriculum and Reading Specialist WHAT DO STUDENTS NEED TO FULLY ENGAGE WITH TEXT Be motivated by seeing connections to self other learnings and other texts ID: 764195 Download Presentation