Investigation of the relationships between towel laundering practices, towel bacteria count and

Investigation of the  relationships between towel laundering practices, towel bacteria count and Investigation of the  relationships between towel laundering practices, towel bacteria count and - Start

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intramammary infection in late lactation dairy cows. Collaborators. : Sandra Godden. 1. , Erin Royster. 1. , Jenny . Timmerman. 1. ,. . and Matt Boyle. 2. . 1. University of Minnesota, . 2. Zoetis. ID: 669336 Download Presentation

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Investigation of the relationships between towel laundering practices, towel bacteria count and




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Presentations text content in Investigation of the relationships between towel laundering practices, towel bacteria count and

Slide1

Investigation of the

relationships between towel laundering practices, towel bacteria count and

intramammary infection in late lactation dairy cows

Collaborators

: Sandra Godden

1

, Erin Royster1, Jenny Timmerman1, and Matt Boyle2 1University of Minnesota, 2Zoetis

Sam Rowe, BVSc MVM DABVP

College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of Minnesota

Slide2

Acknowledgements

ZoetisDr Matt BoyleQuality Milk Specialist teamU. MinnesotaDr

Sandra GoddenDr Erin RoysterJenny Timmerman

Fieldwork team at UMNBobwealth, Nicole, Alexia, Josh, Thomas, Kal, Tori, Katelyn, Zhen

Slide3

INFECTED

UNINFECTED

Towel bacteria count and udder health

ENVIRONMENT

Slide4

Objectives

Describe association between towel bacteria count and IMI prevalenceTotal bacteria countPathogen groupsEstablish targets for towel bacteria countDescribe associations between laundering practices and towel bacteria count

Slide5

Methods

Cross-sectional study80 herds in 10 statesSelected for bedding typeNew sand (n=20)Reclaimed sand (n=21)Manure solids (n=20)

Other organic (n=19)

Slide6

Samples collected

Quarter-milk samples N = 5528Prep towels from 68 herds2 laundered towels collected from the parlor (pooled)

Questionnaire of laundering practices

Slide7

Laboratory methods: Quarter milk samples

CNA

MAC

Slide8

Laboratory methods: Towel bacterial count

CFU per square inch

All isolates

Coliforms

Environmental

Streptococcus sp.

Staphylococcus sp.

Bacillus

Non-coliform gram negatives

Slide9

Statistical methods

Mixed effects logistic regression

Explanatory variable = towel bacteria count

All pathogens

Staph,

Streps

Outcome variable = odds of IMI

All pathogensStaph, StrepsControlled for clustering of quarters within cows and cows within

herdsOther important covariates offered to models Eg. Parity, breed, bedding material, region

Slide10

RESULTS

Slide11

All bacteria

StrepsStaphs

Coliforms

Bacillus

Towel bacteria count

Mean = 2.6

SD = 0.86Log10 CFU / square inch

Slide12

All bacteria

StrepsStaphs

Coliforms

Bacillus

Towel bacteria count

Mean = 2.6

SD = 0.8610100100010,000

CFU / square inch

Slide13

OR = 1.06

p = 0.57Towel bacteria count as predictor of IMI prevalence

Slide14

OR = 1.57

p < 0.001Towel Staph count as a predictor of non-aureus staph IMI risk

Slide15

OR = 1.49

p < 0.001Towel Strep count as a predictor of Strep IMI risk

Slide16

INFECTED

UNINFECTED

Towels may be a fomite for Staph and

Streps

ENVIRONMENT

Slide17

Towel Bacteria Count targets

< 5 CFU /

sq

inch

Staphylococcus sp

.

50% of herdsStreptococcus sp. 53% of herdsColiforms88% of herds

Slide18

Association between towel laundering practices and bacteria count

Factors investigated

Use of sanitizer (

eg

. bleach)

Use of drier

Hot water during washingProfessional laundry service vs laundered onsiteFront vs Top loading washing machinesCommercial vs Home washing machines and driersPacking density in washing machine

Age of towelsAge of washing machine and drierTime from laundering to sampling

Slide19

Association between towel laundering practices and bacteria count

Factors investigated

Use of sanitizer (

eg

. bleach)

Use of drier

Hot water during washingProfessional laundry service vs laundered onsiteFront vs Top loading washing machinesCommercial vs Home washing machines and driersPacking density in washing machine

Age of towelsAge of washing machine and drierTime from laundering to sampling

Un-dried towels were 8.2 times more likely to have coliform counts ≥ 5 CFU (p = 0.003)

Slide20

Why were other factors not associated with bacteria count?

Small sample size (n = 68 herds)

Overlapping effects of different factors

Fox (1997)

Experimental study

Towels should be laundered with

at least one of the followingHot waterBleach (sanitizer)Hot air drier

Slide21

Conclusions and significance

TBC is not a useful predictor of IMI prevalence

Towels may function as fomites for Strep and Staph IMI

Towel culture targets

< 5 CFU for Staph, Strep and Coliforms

Slide22

Conclusions and significance

Hot-air drying reduces coliform count in towelsOther ‘best practice’ laundering practices were not significantly associated with staph and strep counts. Likely due to limitations in study designIn addition to hot air drying, we recommend using commercial grade, front loading washing machines with hot water and sanitizer added to detergent.

Slide23

Questions

Slide24

Other pathways

UNINFECTED

ENVIRONMENT

Slide25

Other pathways

INFECTED

UNINFECTED


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