Cognitive explanation of depression

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Starter-. Based on your flipped homework . on the cognitive explanations of depression . link any of the following words together and write a brief description of why they are linked. . Irrational thoughts. ID: 580898 Download Presentation

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Cognitive explanation of depression




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Slide1

Cognitive explanation of depression

Slide2

Starter- Based on your flipped homework on the cognitive explanations of depression

link any of the following words together and write a brief description of why they are linked.

Irrational thoughts

Ellis

Activating event

Beck

Negative self schemas

Emotion

The negative triad

Self-blame schema

Irrational Belief

Mustabatory

thinking

Cognitive bias

Overgeneralisation

Slide3

Use what you know about Ellis’ cognitive ‘abc’ model of depression to explain why the person did not become depressed

Slide4

Knowledge check activity

Answer the exam style questions below:

Outline Ellis’ ABC model (4 marks)

Ellis proposed the key to mental disorders, such as depression lay in irrational beliefs. The source of these irrational beliefs lies in

mustabatory

thinking.

What is meant by the term

mustabatory

thinking? Give examples in your answer (4 marks)

Explain why

mustabatory

thinking increases the likelihood of depression and what it is (4 marks)

Outline

Becks’s

cognitive triad (4 marks)

Slide5

Question 1

Two marks for naming and explaining A (activating event), B (belief), C (consequence). Two subsequent marks for examples illustrating each component A, B,C.

Slide6

Question 2

One mark for explaining that this involves thinking certain ideas or assumptions must be true in order for the person to be happy.

Two marks

for

identifying 2 of

the irrational beliefs

Ellis identified (3 possible answers)

and

one mark for using a suitable example to demonstrate these beliefs.

Slide7

Question 3

One mark for stating that the person who holds the irrational belief risks becoming depressed when the ‘must’ is not fulfilled. Often musts reflect very unrealistic standards so disappointment in likely.

One mark for giving an example e.g. depression occurs due to irrational belief regarding failure “

I must always do well so failing the test means I am stupid”

Slide8

Exam practice

Ewan

has just been diagnosed with depression having felt overwhelmed with despair for the last 12 weeks. His doctor suggested that the cause of this was the fact that Ewan’s long-term partner walked out on him three months ago. When this happened, Ewan convinced himself that he would never find himself another boyfriend.

Using Ellis’ ABC model, explain why Ewan is suffering from depression (6 marks)

Slide9

Becks negative triad

On the following slide are some true or false questions

If it is true then

expand

on the answer

If it is false then

correct

the statement.

Group 1- statement 1+2

Group 2- statement 3+4

Group 3- statement 5+6

Group 4- statement 7+1

Group 5- statement 2+3

Group 6- statement 4+5

If you finish

: what are the

similarities and differences between Beck and Ellis’

explanations?

Slide10

True or False?

1.Aaron Beck developed a cognitive explanation for all mental disorders.

2. Beck believed that if our thinking is biased towards negative interpretations of the world, we are likely to suffer from depression.

3. A schema is a cognitive framework that helps organise and interpret information. Schemas help us to make sense of the world.

4. Depressed people have developed a negative schema during childhood.

5. Negative schemas are activated whenever a person encounters a new situation that resembles the original conditions in which the schemas were learned

6. Negative schemas lead to systematic behavioural biases

7. Negative schemas and cognitive biases maintain what Beck calls the negative triad: a pessimistic and irrational view of the four key elements in a person’s belief system.

Slide11

Answers:

False: explanation focused specifically on depression

True: depressed patients also lack any perceived control over events in the world

True: could give an example e.g. schema for restaurant means we know how to act when visiting a new establishment for dinner

False: developed during childhood due to a variety of factors, including parental/peer rejection, criticism by teachers

True: example of expecting to fail (schema) and exam (event) could be given

False: leads to ‘cognitive biases’ in thinking

False: there are three key elements.

Slide12

True or False?

1.Aaron Beck developed a cognitive explanation for all mental disorders.

False

2. Beck believed that if our thinking is biased towards negative interpretations of the world, we are likely to suffer from depression.

True

3. A schema is a cognitive framework that helps organise and interpret information. Schemas help us to make sense of the world.

True

4. Depressed people have developed a negative schema during childhood.

True

5. Negative schemas are activated whenever a person encounters a new situation that resembles the original conditions in which the schemas were learned

True

6. Negative schemas lead to systematic behavioural biases

False

7. Negative schemas and cognitive biases maintain what Beck calls the negative triad: a pessimistic and irrational view of the four key elements in a person’s belief system.

False

Slide13

Application

Rupert recently failed a mock A-level exam. He feels very down about it and is experiencing other symptoms of depression too.

H

e thinks he is useless and worthless, and feels guilty for letting everyone down. He now finds he can’t motivate himself to work or do anything to improve next time.

Explain ’s Rupert’s depression in terms of Beck’s negative triad

In Ellis’ terms, identify and explain the ABC of Rupert’s experience.

Slide14

AO1 ‘selectivity’ task

“Describe and evaluate the cognitive approach as an explanation of depression” (16 marks)Plan what you would write in the AO1 section for this exam question. There is lots of information in your pack so you must select 6 key terms that you think are the most important things to include. You have to summarise these in approx. 25 words. Remember it is only worth 6 marks! This activity should be done with no notes but you can discuss in pairs or on your table.

Key term

Summary (25

words)

Slide15

Evaluation

Take a few minutes as a group to remind yourself of what you discussed last lesson on the cognitive explanations of depression

What evidence (research studies) is there to suggest faulty cognitions play a role in depression? You will need to look these up in textbook/pack

Do irrational thoughts cause depression or does depression cause irrational thoughts?

Who does the cognitive approach blame for depression experienced?

Why

is the above a

problem?

Why is the cognitive approach seen as a more positive/useful approach than a biological approach?

THINK: how might biological factors be involved in the development of depression?

Slide16

Bubble technique

This activity is designed for you to create

developed evaluations

that show consideration of two sides of an argument.

I would like you to record your ideas in your

own words

do not copy from the pack! The point of the PES has been done for you.

This activity is essentially planning an evaluation section to the essay title:

Describe and evaluate the cognitive approach as an explanation of depression” (16 marks)

Slide17

Cognitive treatment for depression

Slide18

Greta

suffers from depression. She often experiences feelings of hopelessness and worries constantly that she is a burden to others; she feels guilty for having depression. This has affected her work, as she believes she cannot cope; some days she finds it difficult to even get up let alone travel to work. She reports losing interest in food and finds sleeping difficult. Previously, Greta was in a relationship which she describes as very controlling. Following the breakdown of this relationship, Greta found herself staying home more, avoiding friends and losing enthusiasm for life in general. Although she now realises her partner was very manipulative, she blames herself for how she was treated. Following a discussion with her GP, Greta has been referred to a psychologist for cognitive behavioural therapy.

Using

your knowledge of the characteristics of depression, identify as many characteristics as you can (these must include behavioural, emotional and cognitive characteristics).

Can you identify anything in the scenario which would link to Beck’s cognitive triad?

Can you identify the ABC (Ellis) in the scenario?

Slide19

Quick recap based on homework

On wall-boards:

Bullet point what can you remember/what you know about cognitive behavioural treatments?

Here are some key aspects of CBT below:

Identifying automatic negative thoughts about the self/world/future (thought catching)

Identifying the activating event and the negative irrational belief that has resulted from it

Effort to challenge maladaptive thoughts

Engagement in empirical and logical dispute (attempts to get the client to consider if their interpretations are based on sound evidence or if they are logical)

Encouragement to engage in activities (behavioural activation)

Evidence that the client is beginning to change their interpretations to become more positive in their thinking

Slide20

From the video clips, write down specific examples for the following aspects of cbt:

Identifying automatic negative thoughts about the self/world/future (thought catching)Identifying the activating event and the negative irrational belief that has resulted from itEffort to challenge maladaptive thoughtsEngagement in empirical and logical dispute (attempts to get the client to consider if their interpretations are based on sound evidence or if they are logical)Here’s a video giving more info on Behavioural activation

https://

www.youtube.com/watch?v=7LD8iC4NqXM&list=PLT73pdAYt62jgZNVfW9DMwnkl1ouHc8bT

https://

www.youtube.com/watch?v=W3hMmZQAdhw

Slide21

Evaluating Cognitive Treatments

In groups:

Firstly,

organise

the evaluation points given to you into whether they are an positive or negative points on CBT.

Note:

there may be some points that could be considered both.

Extend:

Have a go at

organising

the points

into logical order relevant to answering the following question: ‘Evaluate cognitive treatments of depression (10 marks)’.

Now, individually answer the questions on MWB’s given on some of the points to elaborate further. You can still talk about these with others.

Extend:

could you link some of the points together? What ‘anchor’ words

(e.g. A strength of CBT is…/However/On the other hand

etc

) could you use in

between

the paragraphs

to help make the points flow

together better?

Slide22

Plenary:Apply it! Research methods: Clinical trial of CBT

The table opposite shows the outcomes for a trial of CBT vs more old fashioned behaviour therapy without cognitive techniques. A higher score indicates greater depression.Q1: Calculate how much improvement each patient showed. Put the data from your calculations in a table (2 marks). Q2: Plot the improvement for each patient against the number of CBT sessions they received on a scattergram (4 marks).Q3: What would you conclude about the relationship between number of sessions and reduction in symptoms? (2 marks)


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