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UNIT 9 CHAPTER 29: A TIME OF UPHEAVAL 1968-1974

LABEL YOUR C. HAPTER 29 TERMS & PLACE THEM IN A STACK PLEASE. . LET’S CONTINUE CH. . 29 NOTES. AGENDA THURSDAY APRIL 19. TH. . YOUTH MOVEMENT . 8 M AM IN COLLEGE ½ OF POP UNDER 30. SOME NEW RIGHT: PRO-NAM; NO QUARREL WITH SYSTEM.

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UNIT 9 CHAPTER 29: A TIME OF UPHEAVAL 1968-1974






Presentation on theme: "UNIT 9 CHAPTER 29: A TIME OF UPHEAVAL 1968-1974"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

UNIT 9

CHAPTER 29: A TIME OF UPHEAVAL 1968-1974Slide2

LABEL YOUR C

HAPTER 29 TERMS & PLACE THEM IN A STACK PLEASE.

LET’S CONTINUE CH. 29 NOTES

AGENDA THURSDAY APRIL 19

TH

Slide3

YOUTH MOVEMENT

8 M AM IN COLLEGE ½ OF POP UNDER 30

SOME NEW RIGHT: PRO-NAM; NO QUARREL WITH SYSTEM

SOME NEW LEFT: STUDENTS FOR A DEM. SOCIETY

MOVEMENT FROM PROTESTS TO RESISTANCE

PROTESTS AT BERKELEY IN CA 1964; ANTI-NAM; KENT STATE 1970Slide4

Anti-War

Demonstrations

Columbia University, 1967Slide5

Anti-War Demonstrations

May 4, 1970

4 students

shot dead.

11 students

wounded

Kent State

University--clip

Jackson

State University

May 10, 1970

2 dead; 12

woundedSlide6

divided US

Called Middle America, the Silent Majority

Supported Vietnam War

Traditional American values: hard work, family and patriotism

Feared and disliked new styles of music and dress of youth

Against use of illegal drugs

Called counterculture Hippies, Flower Children

Opposed Vietnam War

Disillusioned with values of money, status, power; emphasized love, individual freedom, cooperation

Music and fashion emphasized movement toward new society, greater freedom

Used “mind-expanding” drugs,

LSD

DIVIDED AMERICA

ESTABLISHMENT

ANTI-ESTABLISHMENTSlide7

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WOODSTOCK CLIPSlide10

HIPPIES

SAN FRANCISCO’S HAIGHT-ASHBURY & ATLANTA’S 14

TH STREET---”PLACES WHERE YOU COULD TAKE A TRIP WITHOUT A TICKET”

DRUGS, MYSTICISM, & UNINHIBITED SEXUALITY

TIMOTHY LEARY---HARVARD PSYCH. FIRED IN ’63—ENCOURAGED STUDENTS TO EXPERIEMENT LSD

“PSYCHEDELIC” “ACID TESTS”

THE COUNTERCULTURESlide11

BOB DYLAN

BEATLEMANIA

AUG. ‘69 WOODSTOCK NY CATSKILL MTS 400,000

MUSICAL REVOLUTION

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STAPLE DBQ RUBRIC TO YOUR ESSAY PLEASE.

USING TODAY AS A REVIEW DAY

AGENDA FRIDAY APRIL 20

TH

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SHOWCASE COURT CASE “ROE V WADE” 1973

SEXUAL REVOLUTION

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TURN IN NTI 10 IF IT IS COMPLETED. DUE DATE THURDAY

REMINDER YOU ALSO HAVE CH. 30 TERMS DUE ON THAT DAY

LET’S RESUME CH. 29

AGENDA TUESDAY APRIL 24

TH

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1. PBS DOCUMENTARY

2. PROLIFE CLIP

ROE V WADE CLIPS

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1968 THE POLITICS OF UPHEAVAL

YEAR OF MAJOR EVENTS:

1. EUGENE MCCARTHY ANNOUNCES HE WILL RUN VS LBJ FOR DEM. NOM

2. JAN. 31 FIRST DAY OF TET—VIETNAMESE NEW YEAR; TET OFFENSIVE

3. APRIL 1968 MLK ASSASSINATED MEMPHIS, TN CLIP

4. JUNE 1968 RFK ASSASSINATED --CLIP

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TET OFFENSIVE: TURNING POINT

On January 30, 1968, the Viet Cong and North Vietnam launched a major offensive. This series of attacks was called the

Tet Offensive

since it occurred during Tet, the Vietnamese New Year.

During and after the Tet Offensive, both sides were guilty of brutal atrocities. Communists slaughtered anyone they labeled an enemy; Americans massacred hundreds of civilians at My Lai, a small village in South Vietnam. A helicopter crew that stopped the massacre was later rewarded, and the officer who had ordered it was imprisoned.

Because Americans now knew that the Viet Cong could launch massive attacks, and because no end to the war was in sight, the Tet Offensive proved to be a major psychological victory for the Viet Cong and a turning point in the war.Slide18

The Tet Offensive, January 1968

Because of the

Tet

Offensive, the US media announced the US was losing the war.

Walter Cronkite

, part of CBS news who opposed the war after

Tet

.

CRONKITE’S COMMENTSSlide19

Impact of the Tet Offensive

Domestic U.S. Reaction: Disbelief, Anger, Distrust of Johnson Administration

Hey, Hey LBJ! How

many kids did you

kill today?Slide20

“Hanoi Jane”

Jane Fonda

CLIPS

Hollywood opposed the war.

Jane Fonda went to Hanoi to visit with U.S. POW.

She was used as propaganda by North Vietnam.

Recently, a Vietnam vet “spit” on her and called her a traitor.Slide21

Who Is the

Enemy?Slide22

VIETNAMESE EXECUTION CLIPSlide23

Johnson Decides Not to Run

Continuing protests and an increasing number of casualties steadily decreased popular support for Johnson’s handling of the war.

After the Tet Offensive, Johnson rarely left the White House for fear of angry protesters.

Two other Democratic contenders, antiwar candidate Eugene McCarthy and Robert Kennedy, brother of John Kennedy and a senator from New York, campaigned against Johnson for the party’s nomination.

On March 31, 1968, Johnson announced in a nationally televised speech that he would not seek another term as President.Slide24

Impact of the Vietnam War

I do not believe that I should devote an hour or a day of my time to any personal partisan causes, or to any duties other than the awesome duties of this office, the Presidency of your country.

Johnson announces (March, 1968):

Accordingly, I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President. CLIPSlide25

The Election of 1968

The Democratic Convention

At the time of the Democratic Convention in Chicago, Eugene McCarthy was thought too far out of the mainstream, and Robert Kennedy had been assassinated.

During the convention, police attacked protesters, with much of the violence taking place in front of television cameras.

Vice President Hubert Humphrey won the Democratic nomination, but the party had been further torn apart by the convention’s events.

The Nation Chooses Nixon

Richard M. Nixon received the Republican Party’s nomination for President.

Nixon soon took the lead in national polls, allowing his running mate Spiro Agnew to make harsh accusations, while Nixon stayed “above the fray.”

Independent candidate George C. Wallace drew many votes. Additionally, many disillusioned Democrats did not vote.

In a close race, Nixon won the presidency in the 1968 election.Slide26

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RFK ASSASSINATION

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RFK GRAVESITE ARLINGTON CEMETARY

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SIRHAN

SIRHAN

ASSASSIN

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RFK ASSASSINATION CLIP

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1968, The Turning PointSlide33

MARCH ‘68 LT. WILLIAM CALLEY’S UNIT LED A MASSACRE AGAINST SEVERAL HUNDRED SV

GANG-RAPED GIRLS, SHOT WOMEN/CHILDREN, BURNED THE VILLAGE

MY LAI MASSACRE

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MY LAI MASSACRE

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MY LAI MASSACRE CLIP

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Nixon in Vietnam

Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war:

Peace with Honor

Appealed to the great

“Silent Majority”

Vietnamization

Expansion of the

conflict – The “Secret War”

Cambodia

Laos

Agent Orange

– chemical

defoliantSlide38

Nixon Policy

Peace with honor in Vietnam

All POWs must return

NOT turn over SVN to Reds

South Vietnam must fight its war with US $$$

Secret bombing in Cambodia (invaded 1970)

All US ground combat ends 1970; air war?

End of containment policy

Détente with USSR ... friendship?

Détente with China ... friendship?

play off China Vs. USSR

fear each other

both stop helping Hanoi; US can now bombSlide39

Vietnamization, 1969-72

SVN government & army built up

pacification 1969-71; 90% of population safe (many moved to cities)

Viet Cong lose base; US victory!

now a conventional war of NV vs SV

Secret bombings of Cambodia ineffective; US invasion 1970 [more protests]

US ground troops exit 1971Slide40

The Ceasefire,

1973

Conditions:

U.S. to remove all troops

North Vietnam could leave troops already

in S.V.

North Vietnam would resume war

No provision for POWs or MIAs

Last American troops left South Vietnam on March 29, 1973

1975: North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam

Saigon renamed

Ho Chi Minh CitySlide41

If we have to fight, we

will fight. You will kill

ten of our men and we will kill one of yours, and in the end it will be

you

who tires of it.

And in the End….

Ho Chi Minh:Slide42

Formerly Saigon

The New VietnamSlide43

The Impact

26

th

Amendment

: 18-year-olds vote

Nixon abolished the draft--> all-volunteer army

War Powers Act,

1973

٭

President must notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying military force

President must withdraw forces unless he gains Congressional approval within 90 days

Disregard for Veterans --> seen as “baby killers”

POW/MIA issue lingeredSlide44

The Legacy of the War

With a cost of at least $150 billion, and hundreds of thousands of American soldiers killed or wounded, the Vietnam War was the longest and least successful war in American history.

Thousands of American soldiers who did not return home after the war were listed as

POWs

(prisoners of war) or

MIAs

(missing in action). Many remain unaccounted for today.

In Vietnam, millions were dead or wounded, many of them civilians. The war also heavily damaged the landscape of Vietnam.

In 1994, the United States lifted its trade embargo against Vietnam; in 1995, full diplomatic relations were restored. Slide45

Some American POWs Returned from the “Hanoi Hilton”

Senator John McCain

(R-AZ)Slide46

1,200 airplanes crash

6,727,084 tons of bombs were dropped.

3,750 fixed wing aircraft

4,865 helicopters were lost.

500,000 acres of Vietnam were sprayed with defoliants,

Agent Orange

The effects of Agent Orange may last up to 100 years.

The CostsSlide47

VIETNAM WALLSlide48

President Clinton formally recognized Vietnam on

July 11, 1995Slide49

START OF NIXON’S PRESIDENCY

JULY 21, 1969 APOLLO 11 LUNAR MODULE NAMED

EAGLE

LANDED ON MOON

NEIL ARMSTRONG “THAT’S ONE SMALL STEP FOR MAN, ONE GIAN LEAP FOR MANKIND.”

CLIP

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APOLLO 11 CREW

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NEWPAPER HEADLINES

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ARMSTRONG’S FIRST STEP

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BGROUND ON NIXON

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Nixon’s Foreign Policy

Détente = easing of tensions between US, Soviet Union and China. Nixon visits

China

Soviet Union

SALT I

Vietnam War

Vietnamization

Peace With Honor

Cambodian bombing raids

Paris Peace Accords of 1973Slide63

Henry Kissinger

Practical Politics

Kissinger admired the European political philosophy of

realpolitik

, or practical politics.

Under this policy, nations make decisions based on maintaining their strength rather than on moral principles.

Kissinger applied a

realpolitik

approach to his dealings with China and the Soviet Union, which led to better diplomatic relations with both nations.

Public Opinion

Kissinger understood the power of the media and was able to use it to shape public opinion.

Kissinger’s efforts in ending the Vietnam War and easing Cold War tensions made him a celebrity.

He topped a list of most-admired Americans, was often featured on the cover of

Time magazine, and in 1973 shared the Nobel peace prize.Slide64

Nixon’s Foreign Policy

Advisor Henry Kissinger creates détente, warming Cold War relationships

Goes to both the USSR and China in 1972 becoming first President to visit those nations

SALT agreement with the SovietsSlide65

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NIXON AND HIS “PLUMBERS”

G.GORDON LIDDY & E. HOWARD HUNT

TARGETED DAN ELLSBERG FORMER DEFENSE DEPT GIVEN PRESS THE PENTAGON PAPERS—SEC. DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF US INVOLVEMENT IN VIETNAM

S.C. RULES IN FAVOR OF 1

ST

AM FR PRESS

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PLUMBERS

Nixon established a secret group known as the plumbers to plug leaks

Started campaign of dirty tricks that included IRS harassment and derailing of Democratic frontrunner Edmund Muskie.

Used methods as calling New Hampshire voters in the middle of the night and claiming to be from Harlem for

Muskee

or putting signs around Florida stating “Help

Muskee

in busing more children now”

Funded by Committee to Re-Elect the President

(CREEP)

which used highly questionable fund raising tactics and raised over $20 million Slide68

In March 1972, a group within the

Committee to Reelect the President

made plans to wiretap the phones at the

Democratic National Committee Headquarters

at the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C.

This group was led by

E. Howard Hunt and G. Gordon

Liddy

. The group’s first attempt failed. During their second attempt on June 17, 1972, five men were arrested.

The money they carried was traced directly to Nixon’s reelection campaign, linking the break-in to the campaign.

The break-in and the

coverup

which resulted became known as the Watergate scandal.

The Watergate Break-InSlide69

The Watergate Coverup

Although Nixon had not been involved in the break-in, he became involved in its

coverup

.

He illegally authorized the CIA to try to persuade the FBI to stop its investigation of the break-in, on the grounds that the matter involved “

national security

.”

Nixon advisors launched a scheme to bribe the Watergate defendants into silence, as well as coaching them on how to lie in court.

During the months following the break-in, the incident was barely noticed by the public. Nixon won the 1972 election by a landslide. Slide70

In an effort to demonstrate his honesty, in May 1973 Nixon agreed to the appointment of a

special prosecutor

for the Watergate affair.

A special prosecutor works for the Justice Department and conducts an investigation into claims of wrongdoing by government officials.

The Watergate special prosecutor,

Archibald Cox

, insisted that Nixon release the White House tapes.

Nixon ordered him fired on Saturday, October 20, 1973, beginning a series of resignations and firings that became known as the “Saturday Night Massacre.”

The “Saturday Night Massacre”Slide71

Problems in the Nixon Administration, 1973–1974

Nixon’s public approval rating plummeted after his firing of Cox.

When Cox’s replacement, Leon

Jaworski

, also requested that Nixon turn over the tapes, Nixon turned over edited transcripts instead. Feelings of anger and disillusionment arose among many who read them.

Vice President Spiro Agnew, accused of evading income taxes and taking bribes, resigned in early October 1973. His successor, Gerald Ford, was not confirmed until two months later.

An Administration in JeopardySlide72

After the Saturday Night Massacre, Congress began the process of determining if they should

i

mpeach

the President, or charge him with misconduct while in office.

In the summer of 1974,

the House Judiciary Committee

voted to impeach Nixon on numerous charges. Conviction, and removal from office, seemed likely.

On August 5, 1974, Nixon released the White House tapes, with an 18 1/2 minute gap. Even with this gap, the tapes revealed his involvement in the Watergate

coverup

.

On August 9, 1974, Nixon resigned, the first President ever to do so. Gerald Ford was sworn in as the new President.

Impeachment Hearings and Nixon’s ResignationSlide73

WATERGATE COMPLEXSlide74
Slide75

WATERGATE CLIP

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NIXONS RESIGNS AUG. 1974--CLIPSlide77

NIXON DEPARTS Slide78

RESIGNATION

A delegation of the most senior members of Congress, led by Barry Goldwater, informed the President that no more than 15 Senators still supported him

On August 9, 1974, Nixon resigned

Vice President Gerald Ford became President and a month later pardoned Nixon Slide79