2D ANIMATION Project Requirements - PowerPoint Presentation

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2D ANIMATION Project Requirements
2D ANIMATION Project Requirements

2D ANIMATION Project Requirements - Description

Creation of basic bouncing ball Creation of an individual animation Storyboard DrawingsDigital frames Export 3 Moving pictures Animationmaking objects that appear to move on the screenis done by displaying a series of still pictures one after the other in rapid succession ID: 642259 Download Presentation


frames animation cel frame animation frames frame cel object action images series pictures path motion video objects squash key

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Project Requirements

Creation of basic bouncing ball

Creation of an individual animation


Drawings/Digital frames



Moving pictures

Animation—making objects that appear to move on the screen—is done by displaying a series of still pictures, one after the other, in rapid succession

Generally you should try for at least 20 pictures/


Principles of Animation

Animation is possible because of a a biological phenomenon known


persistence of visionAn object seen by the human eye remains chemically mapped on the eye’s retina for a brief time after viewing.Combined with the human mind’s need to conceptually complete a perceived action.

This makes it possible for a series of images that are changed very slightly and very rapidly, one after the other, seem like continuous motion .Slide5

Animation and Frame Rates

TV video builds 30 entire frames or pictures every second.

Movies are shot at a shutter rate of 24 frames per

second, but using projections tricks the flicker is increased to 48.On some projectors each frame is shown 3 times before the next frame, for a total of 72 flickers per second which helps eliminate the flicker effect.Cel Animation – plays at 24 frames per second.Slide6



Made famous by Disney

24 frames per second therefore a minute may require as many as 1,440 separate frames.Cel animation: is based on changes that occur from one frame to the next.Cel stands for celluloid which is a clear sheet with images drawn on them.The celluloid images are place on a background that is usually stationary.The background remain fixed as the images changes.Slide7

Path Animation

Moves an object along a predetermined path on the screen

The path can be a straight line or have a number of curves.

Starts with keyframes (the first and last frame of an action). The series of frames in between the keyframes are drawn in a process called tweening.


requires calculating the number of frames between


and the path the action takes, and then actually takes, and then sketches a series of progressively different outlines.Slide8

Computer Animation



the same logic and procedural concepts as cel animationYou can usually set your own frame rate At 15 frames a second the animation may appear jerky and slow2-D animation can be an acceptable alternative to the expense of creating videoSlide9

Animation File Formats


File FormatDirector .dir & .dcrAnimator Pro .fliStudio Max .maxSuperCard and Director .picsWindows Audio Video Interleaved .


Macintosh .


& .


Motion Video .mpeg

CompuServe .gif

Flash .


Shockwave .


Conventional Animation

Draw each frame of the animation

great control

tediousReduce burden with cel animationlayerkeyframeinbetweencel panoramasSlide11

Computer-Assisted Animation


automate the inbetweeninggood controlless tediouscreating a good animationstill requires considerable skilland talentSlide12

Computer-Assisted Animation

Physically Based Animation

Assign physical properties to objects

(masses, forces, inertial) Simulate physics by solving equationsRealistic but difficult to controlMotion CaptureCaptures style, subtle nuances and realismYou must observe someone do somethingSlide13


Describe motion of objects as a function of time from a set of key object positions. In short, compute the



Interpolating Key Frames

Interpolation is not fool proof. The splines may undershoot and cause interpenetration. The animator must also keep an eye out for these types of side-effects.Slide15

Traditional Animation Principles

The in-


, was once a job for apprentice animators. We described the automatic interpolation techniques that accomplish these tasks automatically. However, the animator still has to draw the key frames. This is an art form and precisely why the experienced animators were spared the in-betweening work even before automatic techniques.The classical paper on animation by John Lasseter from Pixar surveys some the standard animation techniques: Slide16

Squash and stretch


: flatten an object or character by pressure or by its own power

Stretch: used to increase the sense of speed and emphasize the squash by contrastSlide17

Squash and Stretch Cont.

Can relieve the disturbing effect of strobing. Slide18


Timing affects weight:

Light object move quickly

Heavier objects move slowerTiming completely changes the interpretation of the motion. Because the timing is critical, the animators used the draw a time scale next to the keyframe to indicate how to generate the in-between frames.Slide19


An action

breaks to:

AnticipationActionReactionAnatomical motivation: a muscle must extend before it can contract. Prepares audience for action so they know what to expect. Directs audience’s attention. Amount of anticipation can affect perception of speed and weight.Slide20

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