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Husheng Li. The University of Tennessee. Superheterodyne. Receiver. Four tasks of the receiver:. Demodulation. Carrier frequency tuning. Filtering. Amplification of signal. In theory, all of the foregoing requirements could be met with a high-gain tunable . ID: 534126

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## Presentations text content in Chapter 7. Analog Communication System

Chapter 7. Analog Communication System

Husheng Li

The University of Tennessee

Slide2Superheterodyne Receiver

Four tasks of the receiver:

Demodulation

Carrier frequency tuning

Filtering

Amplification of signal

In theory, all of the foregoing requirements could be met with a high-gain tunable

bandpass

amplifier. In practice, it is hard to achieve both selective and

tuneable

.

Slide3Superhet Principle

In the superhet principle, there are two distinct amplification and filtering sections prior to demodulation: RF section and IF section.

Slide4Parameters of AM and FM

Slide5Illustration of Spectrum

Slide6Direct Conversion Receivers

Direct conversion receivers (DC) are a class of tuned-RF (TRF) receivers that consist of an RF amplifier followed by a product detector and suitable message amplification.

Slide7Image Signal Rejection

The DC’s chief drawback is that it does not reject the image signal that is present in the opposite sideband and is thus more susceptible to noise and interference.

Slide8Homework

Deadline: Nov. 18th, 2013

Slide9Double Conversion Receiver

A double-conversion receiver takes the superhet principle one step further by including two frequency converters an two IF sections. The second IF is always fixed-tuned, while the first IF and second LO may be fixed or tunable.

Slide10Receiver Specification

Receiver sensitivity is the minimum input voltage necessary to produce a specified signal-to-noise radio (SNR) at the output of the IF section. A good-quality shortwave radio typically has sensitivity of 1 uV for a 40dB SNR.Dynamic range (DR) is Selectivity specifies a receiver’s capability to discriminate against adjacent channel signals.The noise figure indicates how much the receiver degrades the input signal’s S/N.Image Rejection is

Slide11Scanning Spectrum Analyzers

If the LO in a superhet is replaced by a VCO, then the predetection portion acts like a votlage-tunable bandpass amplifier with center frequency f0=f_LO +/- f_IF

Slide12Operation of Spectrum Analyzer

The number of resolvable spectral lines equalsThe IF output produced by a single line takes the form of a bandpass pulse with time duration A rapid sweep rate may exceed the IF pulse response. Hence, we haveHence, the accurate resolution (small B) calls for a slow rate and long observation time.

Slide13Multiplexing

The basic multiplexing techniques include FDM, TDM and CDM. The multiple access techniques include FDMA, TDMA and CDMA, and OFDM.

Slide14FDM

Slide15Crosstalk in FDM

The major practical problem of FDM is crosstalk, the unwanted coupling of one message into another.

Intelligible crosstalk arises primarily because of nonlinearities in the system which cause one message signal to appear as modulation on another subcarrier.

The crosstalk may also come from imperfect spectral separation by the filter bank.

Slide16Example: FDMA Satellite System

Slide17Quadrature-Carrier Multiplexing

Quadrature-carrier multiplexing, also known as quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), utilizes carrier phase shifting and synchronous detection to permit two DSB signals to occupy the same frequency band.

Slide18TDM

Slide19Synchronization Markers

Markers are needed for time synchronization

Slide20Crosstalk and Guard Times

The filter design in TDM should be avoid inter-channel crosstalk.A guard time is needed to avoid the crosstalk in TDM.The crosstalk reduction factor is

Slide21Crosstalk in PPM

The avoidance of crosstalk in PPM requires

Slide22Comparison of TDM and FDM

TDM is readily implemented with high-density VLSI circuitry where digital switches are extremely economical.

TDM is invulnerable to the usual causes of crosstalk in FDM.

TDM may or may not be advantageous when the transmission medium is subject to fading.

Most systems are hybrids of FDMA and TDMA.

Slide23GSM

GSM is a hybrid of TDMA and FDMA

Slide24Homework

Deadline: Nov. 25th, 2013

Slide25Phase Locked Loops

A PLL uses phase comparator

Slide26Phase Dynamics in PLL

The instantaneous angle in PLL is given by

Slide27Dynamics in PPL

The dynamics of the phase error are described in the nonlinear differential equation:where the loop gain is defined asThe steady state is given by

Slide28Convergence

A necessary condition for the stead-state solution is given byWhen the error is very close to zero, we have the following approximation:

Slide29PLL Pilot Filter

We can use the following circuit to generate a sinusoid synchronized with the pilot:

Slide30Synchronous Detection

When there is no pilot (e.g., in DSB), we can use the following Costas-PLL to lock the phase:

Slide31Frequency-offset Loop

We can use the following PLL to realize the synthesize the sum of two frequencies:

Slide32Frequency Multiplication

We can us the following PLL and frequency divider to realize the multiplication of a frequency with an integer:

Slide33Adjustable Local Oscillator

We can use the following circuits to obtain 100kHz and 1.6MHz and adjustable LO that covers 9.90—9.99 MHz.

Slide34Quiz

Use the following figure to explain the purpose of phase locked loop and its operation procedure:

Slide35Linearized PLL

The frequency domain model of PLL can be obtained by linearizing the PLL:

Slide36FM Detection

When the input is FM signal, the PLL can be approximated by a first-order lowpass filter:The output is given by

Slide37Software Project

Topic: Analyze the spectrum of AM and FM signals.Software: MatlabTasks:1. Consider triangle series shown in the right figure. Consider carrier frequency 200Hz. Choose the modulation indices by yourself.2. Sample the modulated signal. Plot the time domain curves of the AM and FM modulated signals. Determine the sampling rate by yourself.3. Read the introduction to discrete Fourier transform (DFT) in Matlab (http://www.mathworks.com/help/matlab/math/discrete-fourier-transform-dft.html) and the function fft (http://www.mathworks.com/help/matlab/ref/fft.html).4. Use function fft in Matlab to obtain the spectrum of the modulated signal. Compare the spectrum of AM and FM.5. Change the parameters such as modulation index and draw conclusions on the impact of these parameters.

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