Spot Fallacies PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

Spot Fallacies PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

2018-01-08 12K 12 0 0

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The Seven Deadly Logical Sins. Ways to use logic as a shield. Spot Fallacies. Homer: Lisa, would you like a doughnut?. Lisa: No, thanks. Do you have any fruit?. Homer: This has purple in it. Purple is a fruit.. ID: 621246

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Slide1

Spot Fallacies

The Seven Deadly Logical Sins

Ways to use logic as a shield

Slide2

Spot Fallacies

Homer: Lisa, would you like a doughnut?

Lisa: No, thanks. Do you have any fruit?

Homer: This has purple in it. Purple is a fruit.

Slide3

Spot Fallacies

Elephants are animals.

You are an animal.

That makes you an elephant.

Slide4

Spot Fallacies

“All logical fallacies come down to…bad logic. In the logic of deliberative argument, you have the proof and a choice. // It starts with what the audience knows or believes—the commonplace—and applies it to a particular situation to prove your conclusion. In deduction, the commonplace serves as your proof. The proof in induction is a set of examples.”

Slide5

Spot Fallacies

Tautology

—repeating the same thing as if I am proving something.

“All logical fallacies come down to bad logic.”

Slide6

Spot Fallacies

Does a fallacy lie hidden in an argument?

Does the proof hold up?

Am I given the right number of choices?

Does the proof lead to the conclusion?

Who cares?

Slide7

Spot Fallacies

“In rhetoric, on the other hand, there are really no rules. You can commit fallacies to your heart’s content, so long as you get away with them. Your audience bears the responsibility to spot them; but if it dies, there goes your ethos.”

Slide8

Spot Fallacies

Bad Proofs

—include three sins: false comparison (lumping examples of the wrong category), bad example, and ignorance as proof (asserting that the lack of examples proves something.)

Wrong number of choices

—covers one essential sin, the false choice: offering just two choices when more are available, or merging two or three issues into one.

Disconnect between proof and conclusion

—results in the tautology (in which the proof and the conclusion are identical), the red herring (a sneaky distraction), or the wrong ending (in which the proof fails to lead to the conclusion).

Slide9

Spot the Fallacies

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qb-h0sXkH4

Strawman

—1:50

Ad Hominem—3:45

Ad

Homiem

Tu

quoque

—4:39

The Black & White Fallacy—5:50

The Authority Fallacy—7:40

The No-True-Scotsman Fallacy—9:30

Slide10

Spot the Fallacies

The Fallacy Fallacy--https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oGBO-WMrlIQ&index=2&list=PLtHP6qx8VF7dPql3ll1To4i6vEIPt0kV5

Slide11

Spot Fallacies

First Deadly Sin: The False Comparison

“Made with all natural ingredients.”

…all natural… or …all-natural…

The

ambiguity

fallacy

.

Slide12

Spot Fallacies

Purple is not a fruit!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ak7GZxpF2U

Slide13

Spot Fallacies

The

all natural fallacy

assumes that members of the same family assume the same traits.

Slide14

Spot Fallacies

The

appeal to popularity

legitimizes your choice by claiming that others have chosen it.

Slide15

Spot Fallacies

Reductio

ad absurdum

—reducing an argument to absurdity.

(The premise is unbelievable.)

Slide16

Spot Fallacies

The

fallacy of antecedent

Driver: I don’t have to slow down. I haven’t had an accident yet.

(It never happened before, so it never will. / It’s happened before, so it will happen again.)

“My dog doesn’t bite.”

Slide17

Spot Fallacies

The

false analogy

Candidate: I’m a successful business man. Elect me and I will run a successful city.

Slide18

Spot Fallacies

Anthropomorphism—

screaming trees?

Slide19

Spot Fallacies

Unit fallacy

--mistaking one kind of unit for another.

(Keep track of the difference between a piece of the pie and the whole pie.)

Slide20

Spot Fallacies

Read the discussion about the cost of detergent (143-144). (unit fallacy)

Slide21

Spot Fallacies

Second Deadly Sin: The Bad Example

Misinterpreting the evidence

Parent: Seeing all those crimes on TV makes me want to lock up my kids and never let them out.

(Evidence doesn’t support the conclusion.)

Slide22

Spot Fallacies

Proper Rhetorical Reply: Good! That’ll keep a couple more potential criminals off the streets.

Slide23

Spot Fallacies

The

hasty generalization

offers too few examples to prove the point.

Coworker: That intern from Yale was great. Let’s get another

Yalie

.

Proper Rhetorical Reply: Didn’t that jerk in Legal go to Yale?

Slide24

Spot Fallacies

Third Deadly Sin: Ignorance as Proof

The fallacy of ignorance

—If we can’t prove it, then it must not exist. Or, if we can’t disprove it, then it must exist.

Doctor:

There’s nothing wrong with you. The lab tests came back negative.

Slide25

Spot Fallacies

Proof: The lab tests are all negative. So…

Conclusion: Nothing is wrong with you.

Slide26

Spot Fallacies

Fourth Deadly Sin: The Tautology

The

tautology

basically just repeats the premise.

Fan: The Cowboys are favored to win since they’re the better team.

Slide27

Spot Fallacies

It is also called “

begging the question

”.

“You can trust our candidate because he is an honest man.”

Slide28

Spot Fallacies

The Fifth Deadly Sin: The False Choice

Many Questions

: Two or more issues get squashed into one, so that a conclusion proves another conclusion.

The “when did you stop beating your wife” ploy.

Slide29

Spot Fallacies

The

false dilemma

—you are given two choices when you actually have many choices.

<The cat fancier discussion, Pg. 147 – 148>

Slide30

Spot Fallacies

The

complex cause

fallacy—Only one cause gets the blame (or credit) for something that has many causes.

<The faulty motorcycle helmet>

Slide31

Spot Fallacies

The Sixth Deadly Sin: The Red Herring

The

red herring

(the Chewbacca defense)—Switches issues in mid-argument to throw the audience off the sent.

Slide32

Spot Fallacies

The

straw man

tactic—a version of the red herring fallacy; it switches topics to one that is easier to fight.

Slide33

Spot Fallacies

The Seventh Deadly Sin: The Wrong Ending

The

slippery slope

—if we allow this reasonable thing, it will inevitably lead to an extreme version of it.

Parent: If I let you skip dinner, then I’ll have to let the other kids skip dinner.

Slide34

Spot Fallacies

Mixing up cause and effect—

“Budget cuts are ruining our children!”

The best argument against the slippery slope is concession. The slippery slope has a built-in reduction ad absurdum

Slide35

Spot Fallacies

The

post hoc ergo propter hoc

fallacy (the chanticleer fallacy)—after this, therefore because of this.

Slide36

Spot Fallacies

“Our newsletter is a big success. After we started publishing it, alumni giving went up.”


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