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Applying Moral Theories to Case Studies Applying Moral Theories to Case Studies

Applying Moral Theories to Case Studies - PowerPoint Presentation

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Uploaded On 2016-11-22

Applying Moral Theories to Case Studies - PPT Presentation

Ethics Across the Curriculum Two Approaches to Using Case Studies Two Approaches to Using Case Studies Values Clarification Presenting students cases and asking What do you think Two Approaches to Using Case Studies ID: 491732

moral case theories studies case moral studies theories duty theory valuable humans approaches based students presenting intrinsically beings utilitarianism approach act wrong

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Presentation Transcript

Slide1

Applying Moral Theories to Case Studies

Ethics Across the Curriculum Slide2

Two Approaches to Using Case StudiesSlide3

Two Approaches to Using Case Studies

Values Clarification

Presenting students cases and asking: “What do you think?”Slide4

Two Approaches to Using Case Studies

Values Clarification

Presenting students cases and asking: “What do you think?”

Challenge them to develop a reason why they think that.Slide5

Two Approaches to Using Case Studies

Values Clarification

Presenting students cases and asking: “What do you think?”

Challenge them to develop a reason why they think that.Goal: consistency among their beliefsSlide6

Two Approaches to Using Case Studies

Moral Theory ApproachSlide7

Two Approaches to Using Case Studies

Moral Theory Approach

Presenting students case studies and moral theories.Slide8

Two Approaches to Using Case Studies

Moral Theory Approach

Presenting students case studies and moral theories.

Asking them how theory A would lead us to respond and why, and then how theory B would lead us to respond and why.Slide9

Two Approaches to Using Case Studies

Moral Theory Approach

Presenting students case studies and moral theories.

Asking them how theory A would lead us to respond and why, and then how theory B would lead us to respond and why.Goal: a plausible moral worldview (not merely internal consistency)Slide10

Duty-based TheoriesSlide11

Duty-based Theories

Humans are intrinsically valuable.Slide12

Duty-based Theories

Humans are intrinsically valuable.

Why?

Value is either “extrinsic” (ascribed) or “intrinsic” (inherent).Beings who have (a) the capacity for understanding moral reasons and (b) acting on moral reasons are the only sort of beings for whom moral obligations are relevant, thus they are the source of all extrinsic value in the universe.Humans meet conditions (a) and (b).

Therefore, humans are intrinsically valuable.Slide13

Duty-based Theories

Humans are intrinsically valuable.

Duties are discovered by applying a rational criterion to an action in light of the intrinsic value of humans.Slide14

Duty-based Theories

Humans are intrinsically valuable.

Duties are discovered by applying a rational criterion to an action in light of the intrinsic value of humans.

Which rational criterion is relevant depends on the duty-based theorist.Slide15

UtilitarianismSlide16

Utilitarianism

Happiness is the only morally valuable feature of reality.Slide17

Utilitarianism

Happiness is the only morally valuable feature of reality.

The value of each being that can experience pleasure and pain (“sentient” beings, human or animal) is calculated equally.Slide18

Utilitarianism

Happiness is the only morally valuable feature of reality.

The value of each being that can experience pleasure and pain (“sentient” beings, human or animal) is calculated equally.

An act is right or wrong insofar as it increases or decreases the overall happiness of the most sentient beings over the longest time.Slide19

How does this work?

Inclination Intended Result

Will

Duty Actual Result

What makes an act right or wrong?Slide20

Duty-based Theories

Inclination Intended Result

Will

Duty Actual Result

What makes an act right or wrong?Slide21

Utilitarianism

Inclination Intended Result

Will

Duty Actual Result

What makes an act right or wrong?Slide22

Applying Moral Theories to Case Studies

The Trolley Case